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Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices and co-ordinate domestic and international policies of its members.

Todos os conjuntos de dados:  A B C D E F G I L M N O P R S T W
  • A
    • março 2015
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 10 agosto, 2017
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      Data is available for the 17 countries covered by the SWAC/OECD (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo).   Agglomerated population: Population of urban agglomerations above 10 000 inhabitants.
    • outubro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 15 outubro, 2019
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      This dataset is used to report the tying status of bilateral ODA commitments. Members have agreed that administrative costs and technical co-operation expenditure should be disregarded in assessing the percentages of tied, partially untied and untied aid. These items have not been included in the data reported in this data set.
    • julho 2018
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Sandeep Reddy
      Acesso em 05 setembro, 2018
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      This dataset contains commitment data (since 2002) and disbursement data (since 2009) on aid in support of gender equality from the CRS database. In their reporting to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Creditor Reporting System (CRS), donors are requested to indicate for each activity whether or not it targets gender equality as one of its policy objectives. To qualify as “gender equality focussed,” an activity must explicitly promote gender equality and women’s empowerment. An activity can either target gender equality as its “principal objective” or as a “significant objective”. A “principal” score (2) is assigned if gender equality was an explicit objective of the activity and fundamental to its design - i.e. the activity would not have been undertaken without this objective. A “significant” score (1) is assigned if gender equality was an important, but secondary, objective of the activity - i.e. it was not the principal reason for undertaking the activity. A “not targeted” score (0) is assigned if, after being screened against the gender equality policy marker, an activity is not found to target gender equality. Activities assigned a “principal objective” score should not be considered better than activities assigned a “significant objective” score, as donors that mainstream gender equality - and thus integrate it into their projects across a range of sectors - are more likely to allocate the marker score “significant” to their aid activities. The gender equality marker allows an approximate quantification of aid flows that target gender equality as a policy objective. In marker data presentations the figures for principal and significant objectives should be shown separately and the sum referred to as the “estimate” or “upper bound” of gender equality-focussed aid. An activity can have more than one principal or significant objective. Therefore, total amounts targeting the different objectives should not be added-up to avoid double-counting. Policy markers seek information on the donor’s policy objectives which can be best assessed at the design stage of projects. This is why policy markers are applied to commitments. Policy marker data on a disbursement basis can also be compiled, but it is important to note that this does not mean the policy objectives of projects under implementation would have been re-assessed. Rather, the disbursements are linked to the qualitative information on the original commitment through project identifiers. Consequently, a project marked as gender equality focussed at the commitment stage will be flagged as gender equality focussed throughout its lifetime, unless the qualitative information was changed. Activity-level gender equality marker data that underlie the aggregate figures presented in this dataset are available for consultation and download: see “Export”, “Related files”.
  • B
    • dezembro 2017
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 18 dezembro, 2017
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      Better Life Index aims to involve citizens in the debate on measuring the well-being of societies, and to empower them to become more informed and engaged in the policy-making process that shapes all our lives. Each of the 11 topics of the Index is currently based on one to three indicators. Within each topic, the indicators are averaged with equal weights. The indicators have been chosen on the basis of a number of statistical criteria such as relevance (face-validity, depth, policy relevance) and data quality (predictive validity, coverage, timeliness, cross-country comparability etc.) and in consultation with OECD member countries. These indicators are good measures of the concepts of well-being, in particular in the context of a country comparative exercise. Other indicators will gradually be added to each topic.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      The Burkina Faso Gender, Institutions and Development Database (Burkina Faso-GID) provides researchers and policymakers with key data at the national and subnational levels on gender-based discrimination in social institutions. This data helps analyse women’s empowerment and understand gender gaps in other key areas of development. Covering the 13 regions of the country, the Burkina Faso-GID contains comprehensive information on social norms, attitudes and both perceived and actual practices that discriminate against women and girls.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 16 abril, 2019
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      The Burkina Faso-SIGI is a composite indicator measuring discriminatory social institutions. It is built on 46 innovative variables which are grouped into 5 sub-indices: discrimination in the family, restricted physical and moral integrity, son preference, restricted access to resources and assets and restricted civil liberties. The Burkina Faso-SIGI and its sub-indices range from 0, for no discrimination, to 1, for very high discrimination.
  • C
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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    • julho 2016
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 29 julho, 2016
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      Country Programmable Aid (CPA), outlined in our Development Brief  and also known as “core” aid, is the portion of aid donors programme for individual countries, and over which partner countries could have a significant say. CPA is much closer than ODA to capturing the flows of aid that goes to the partner country, and has been proven in several studies to be a good proxy of aid recorded at country level. CPA was developed in 2007 in close collaboration with DAC members. It is derived on the basis of DAC statistics and was retroactively calculated from 2000 onwards
  • D
  • E
    • agosto 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 06 agosto, 2019
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      The OECD, in cooperation with the EU, has developed a harmonised definition of urban areas which overcomes previous limitations linked to administrative definitions (OECD, 2012). According to this definition an urban area is a functional economic unit characterised by densely inhabited “city core” and “commuting zone” whose labour market is highly integrated with the core. The Metropolitan database provides indicators of 649 OECD metropolitan areas identified in 33 OECD countries and the functional urban areas of Colombia. Comparable values of population, GDP, employment, and other indicators are presented.
    • outubro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 08 outubro, 2019
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    • novembro 2018
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 01 agosto, 2019
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      Air pollution is considered one of the most pressing environmental and health issues across OECD countries and beyond. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has potentially the most significant adverse effects on health compared to other pollutants. PM2.5 can be inhaled and cause serious health problems including both respiratory and cardiovascular disease, having its most severe effects on children and elderly people. Exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to considerably increase the risk of heart disease and stroke in particular. For these reasons, population exposure to (outdoor or ambient) PM2.5 has been identified as an OECD Green Growth headline indicator. The underlying PM2.5 concentrations estimates are taken from van Donkelaar et al. (2016). They have been derived using satellite observations and a chemical transport model, calibrated to global ground-based measurements using Geographically Weighted Regression at 0.01° resolution. The underlying population data, Gridded Population of the World, version 4 (GPWv4) are taken from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) at the NASA. The underlying boundary geometries are taken from the Global Administrative Unit Layers (GAUL) developed by the FAO, and the OECD Territorial Classification, when available. The current version of the database presents much more variation with respect to the previous one. The reason is that the underlying concentration estimates previously included smoothed multi-year averages and interpolations; while in the current version annual concentration estimates are used. Establishing trends of pollution exposure should be done with care, especially at smaller output areas, as their inputs (e.g. underlying data and models) can change from year to year. We recommend using a 3-year moving average for visualisation.
  • F
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 17 abril, 2019
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    • julho 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 14 julho, 2019
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      The FDI Regulatory Restrictiveness Index (FDI Index) measures statutory restrictions on foreign direct investment across 22 economic sectors. It gauges the restrictiveness of a country’s FDI rules by looking at the four main types of restrictions on FDI: 1) Foreign equity limitations; 2) Discriminatory screening or approval mechanisms; 3) Restrictions on the employment of foreigners as key personnel and 4) Other operational restrictions, e.g. restrictions on branching and on capital repatriation or on land ownership by foreign-owend enterprises. Restrictions are evaluated on a 0 (open) to 1 (closed) scale. The overall restrictiveness index is the average of sectoral scores. The discriminatory nature of measures, i.e. when they apply to foreign investors only, is the central criterion for scoring a measure. State ownership and state monopolies, to the extent they are not discriminatory towards foreigners, are not scored. The FDI Index is not a full measure of a country’s investment climate. A range of other factors come into play, including how FDI rules are implemented. Entry barriers can also arise for other reasons, including state ownership in key sectors. A country’s ability to attract FDI will be affected by others factors such as the size of its market, the extent of its integration with neighbours and even geography among other. Nonetheless, FDI rules can be a critical determinant of a country’s attractiveness to foreign investors.
    • julho 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 14 julho, 2019
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    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      CHILE: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The Chilean tax system relies on the use of the UTM (Unidad Tributaria Mensual). The UTM is a unit of account used exclusively for tax purposes. Its exchange rate vis-à-vis the Chilean peso is adjusted monthly on the basis of the consumer price index, thereby keeping its real value more or less constant.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 16 abril, 2019
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      COLOMBIA: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes Colombia’s fiscal year matches the calendar year.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      CZECH REPUBLIC: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in the Czech Republic coincides with the calendar year. Consumer support estimates were provided directly by the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Finance, and the Ministry of Industry and Trade. Measures pertaining to the restructuring of the country’s coal-mining industry and associated environmental liabilities are taken from a study included in the Mineral Commodity Summaries of the Czech Republic (Czech Geological Survey - Geofond, 2010) that was published by the Ministry of Industry and Trade: "Eliminating negative consequences of mining in the Czech Republic" - main methods and financial resources" (Kaštovský and Platzek, 2010). Notes relating to the General Services Support Estimate Since 1991, the Czech Republic has not supported the production or consumption of coal. The state retains, however, an obligation to deal with the social, health, and environmental liabilities associated with past mining activity. The government transferred these obligations to two state-owned enterprises, DIAMO, s.p. and Palivový kombinát Ústí, s.p., which acquired the assets of the closed mining companies. These state-owned enterprises receive government subsidies for the activities they carry out. Since measures financed through these subsidy payments do not act to increase current production or consumption of coal, they are all allocated to the GSSE. Restructuring the coal-mining industry and remediating the negative environmental consequences of mining are conducted in several different ways and using several different financial resources (Kaštovský and Platzek, 2010). Besides the measures reported in this inventory, mining companies have since 1994 been required to set up two reserve funds: a financial reserve for remediation and reclamation of all plots of land affected by mining, and a financial reserve for alleviating material damage caused by mining (e.g. land subsidence).
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      DENMARK: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes Denmark’s fiscal year coincides with the calendar year. Producer Support Estimate Income derived from oil and natural-gas production is subject to various taxes and fees: the regular corporate income tax; the hydrocarbon tax (a specific tax on income derived from oil and gas production); royalties and compensatory payments; and profit sharing. Payments under the corporate tax are deductible from the hydrocarbon tax base. In addition, the oil pipeline tariff and compensatory fee can be offset against the hydrocarbon tax, but not against the corporate tax base. As of 2014, the corporate income tax amounts to 24.5%. However, in 2013 the Danish parliament passed two bills that will reduce the corporate income tax rate to 22% by 2016. Until January2014, the hydrocarbon tax regime differentiated between "old" licences granted before January2004 and "new" licences granted since 1 January 2004. For old licences, hydrocarbon income was subject to a 70% tax rate, but licensees were allowed to offset 25% of their capital expenditure (CAPEX) against their hydrocarbon tax bill over a period of ten years. For new licences, the hydrocarbon income tax was set at 52% and the allowance was granted for 5% of CAPEX over six years. From January2014 on, this differentiation is now abolished and old licences are treated under the same tax terms as new ones.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      SPAIN: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Spain coincides with the calendar year. Following OECD convention, amounts prior to 1999 appear as "euro-fixed series" where fixed EMU conversion rate (EUR 1EUR = ESP 166.386) were applied to data initially expressed in Spanish Peseta (ESP).
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      ESTONIA: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Estonia coincides with the calendar year. Following OECD convention, amounts prior to 2011 are expressed as ‘euro-fixed series’, meaning that the fixed EMU conversion rate (EUR 1 = EEK 15.647) was applied to data initially expressed in the Estonian kroon (EEK).
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      FINLAND: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Finland coincides with the calendar year. The Ministry of Finance reviewed the collected estimates and provided calculations of missing estimates where necessary.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      FRANCE: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in France coincides with the calendar year. Following OECD convention, amounts prior to 1999 are expressed as ‘euro-fixed series’, meaning that this inventory applies the fixed EMU conversion rate (EUR1= FRF 6.559) to data initially expressed in the French Franc (FRF). Producer Support Estimate France used to support the production of hard coal through Charbonnages de France (CdF), a state-owned mining enterprise. Support was at the time deemed necessary owing to the low competitiveness of the French coal industry. By 1990, production had already ceased in the North of the country. An agreement between trade unions and CdF, the Pacte Charbonnier, was therefore concluded in October1994 to organise the progressive dismantling of the remaining production sites. The agreement provided for the end of all production by 2005. This was to be achieved through a series of measures meant to address the social costs associated with mine closures. One such measure, the congé charbonnier de fin de carrière, allowed coal miners to stop working at the age of 45 while remaining entitled to payments worth 80% of their previous wages. The last remaining mine was closed in 2004, ahead of schedule. CdF was liquidated in 2007 and its debt transferred to the French state, along with the responsibility for all inherited social and environmental liabilities. France does not produce coal any more.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      UNITED KINGDOM: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in the United Kingdom runs from 1April to 31March. Following OECD convention, data are allocated to the starting calendar year so that data covering the period April 2016 to March 2017 are allocated to 2016. Producer Support Estimate Taxation of the oil and gas sector in the United Kingdom occurs through a variety of taxes. Notably, fields approved for development prior to 16March1993 were subject to the old Petroleum Revenue Tax (PRT) - a project-based tax levied on the profits from a given field - instituted in 1975. In the last several years the PRT rate was amended twice, being reduced from 50% to 35% in January 2015 and then being cut to nil in January 2016. . The PRT allowed for the full deduction of both operating and capital expenditures. It did not, however, allow the deduction of interest costs and other financing charges from taxable profits. Meanwhile, oil and gas corporations that have invested in approved fields after 16 March 1993 are also subject to a modified version of the regular corporation tax, namely the Ring-Fence Corporation Tax (RFCT). The imposition of a "ring fence" around upstream oil and gas activities means that these particular activities are to be treated separately for tax purposes from any other trade in which oil and gas companies may be engaged. This therefore allows upstream oil and gas activities to be taxed differently at the company-level. Differences in taxation include, for instance, the impossibility for companies to use losses in other activities as deductions against the income arising from oil and natural gas extraction. While all fields are subject to the RFCT, those that were approved for development prior to 16March1993 could deduct the amount of PRT taxes paid from their RFCT tax base. This ensured that the fields that were still subject to the old PRT regime were not taxed twice on the same profits. In addition, all types of fields are liable to the so-called Supplementary Charge (SC), which was introduced in the Finance Act of 2002. The SC is currently a 10% tax on profits from oil and natural gas production that is levied on top of the RFCT. The immediate write-off of both capital and exploration-and-development expenditures is normally considered under the systems in many countries to amount to a preferential tax treatment. The reason is that in calculating taxable profits in most income-tax systems, capital expenses are allocated over the period to which they contribute to earnings. Allowing the immediate writing-off of these types of expenditure therefore provides companies with something akin to a zero-interest loan from the government since it delays the collection of taxes. A present-value calculation would indeed show a positive transfer from the government to the companies benefiting from such provisions. However, when combined with impossibility for companies to deduct interest costs and other financing charges, the immediate write-off of both capital and exploration-and-development expenditures may not be considered a preferential tax treatment. Instead, this particular combination of tax provisions may approximate what is known as a "cash-flow" tax system. Cash-flow tax systems can be theoretically equivalent to the more common imputed-income tax systems where the objective is to levy a neutral business tax (Boadway and Bruce, 1984). For that reason, provisions such as the expensing of exploration and development costs may not be preferential tax provisions in the particular case of the United Kingdom.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      GREECE: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Greece coincides with the calendar year. Following OECD convention, amounts prior to 1999 are expressed as "euro-fixed series", so that this inventory applies the fixed EMU conversion rate (1EUR = GRD 340.750) to data initially expressed in Greek drachma (GRD).
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      INDONESIA: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes Until 2010, the Indonesian fiscal year ran from 1April till 31March of the following year. Following OECD conventions, for the years prior to 2011, data are allocated to the starting calendar year so that data covering the period April2005 to March2006 are allocated to 2005. After 2010, the Indonesian fiscal year coincides with the calendar year. Most of the data were obtained from publications by the Global Subsidies Initiative, the Indonesian Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR), and SKK Migas (the energy regulator). Methodological note A large part of support to fossil fuels in non-OECD countries (and in a few member countries such as Mexico) takes the form of price controls or regulations benefitting final consumers. In many cases, this occurs through the government mandating state-owned oil and gas companies to charge lower retail prices, thereby lowering the revenues these companies collect through sales of fuel. This often results in the government subsequently intervening to compensate state-owned oil and gas companies for the losses they incurred in the downstream sector due to the regulated prices, with this compensation taking many forms. Some governments choose, for example, to compensate national oil and gas companies through targeted tax concessions (e.g., VAT exemptions) or equity injections. This inventory focusses on the direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that encourage the production or consumption of fossil fuels, including those benefitting national oil and gas companies. For this reason, some of the measures classified here under "Producer Support Estimate" may have been introduced by governments with a view to compensating domestic, vertically integrated oil and gas companies for the lower prices they are required to charge at the retail level, resulting in these measures being connected to some extent to consumer support. Estimates of the support directly conferred to final consumers by regulated prices are available from the International Energy Agency (IEA), which estimates these induced transfers as part of its annual "World Energy Outlook" publication. Readers are therefore advised not to add together the OECD and IEA estimates given the significant risk of overlap and double-counting this involves. Producer Support Estimate Since 1966, International Oil Companies (IOCs) seeking to explore and develop oil or natural-gas resources in Indonesia have to enter into Production Sharing Contracts (PSCs) with the MEMR. The terms and conditions of the PSC system have varied with each "generation" of PSCs that has been issued since. The first generation applied from 1965 to 1975, the second generation from 1976 to 1987, and the third from 1988 until now. The main characteristics of the PSC system have, however, remained the same, namely that the government and IOCs share the production of the oil and natural gas rather than the resulting profits, and that the effective income for each side amounts to a share of the "First Tranche Petroleum" and an equity share of the profit oil after cost recovery. Since 2001, Pertamina is required to enter into a Work Agreement (WA) with SKK Migas (previously BP Migas, the energy regulator) for each of its operations, the terms and conditions for which are more or less the same than that for the PSCs. PSCs currently in force in Indonesia usually provide for the state to receive 70% of the produced natural gas, with contractors being allocated the remaining 30%. In the case of coal-bed methane (CBM), however, PSCs signed since 2007 have often featured a lower government share (45%). Historically, the applicable income tax for companies operating in the upstream oil and natural-gas sector has been the prevailing income tax at the time that the PSC got signed, i.e. 25% as of 2013. The income tax applicable to the downstream sector normally also follows the prevailing tax law. However, as other industries in "high priority economic sectors", a number of downstream businesses can benefit from a number of income-tax concessions subject to approval by the Ministry of Finance. These businesses include: oil and natural-gas refineries, LNG and LPG producers, lubricant manufacturers, and the organic chemical industry using oil and natural gas as inputs. The list of income-tax concessions eligible taxpayers can receive includes additional net-income deductions (up to 30% of the amount invested), accelerated depreciation, the extension to ten years of the period for carrying losses forward, and a cap on withholding tax. Footnotes: [1] Instead of a royalty, the Indonesian government charges a so-called "First Tranche Petroleum". This requires that the first 20% of production be shared in favour of the government and before cost recovery according to the equity split set in the contract (Johnston, 1994). In more recent PSCs, the government has taken the entire FTP, although in this case the FTP has usually been lowered to 10% of the first production.
    • julho 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 14 julho, 2019
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      IRELAND: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Ireland coincides with the calendar year. Following OECD convention, amounts prior to 1999 are expressed as "euro-fixed series", meaning that we applied the fixed EMU conversion rate (EUR 1 = IEP 0.788) to data initially expressed in the Irish Pound (IEP).
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      ISRAEL: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes Israel’s fiscal year coincides with the calendar year. Producer Support Estimate The oil and gas industry in Israel is regulated by a system of fees, royalty payments and tax deductions developed in the 1950s. The fiscal provisions that are unique to the oil and gas industry are the Oil Law (1952), Oil Regulations (1953), Income Tax Ordinance (1961) and some parts of the income tax legislation, especially the Deductions from the Income of Holders of Oil Rights (1956) and the Rules for Calculating Tax for the Holding and Sale of Participation Units in an Oil Exploration Partnership (1988). Israel started producing natural gas in 2004. As this is a relatively recent development, the issues of producer taxation and royalty payments are currently under review by the government (Knesset), the Ministry of Finance and participants representing the civil society. In April 2010, the Minister of Finance appointed a committee to examine the fiscal framework for the oil and gas resources in Israel, headed by Professor Eytan Sheshinski. The Sheshinski Committee submitted its final conclusions in January 2011. It recommended that the 12.5% rate of royalty payments should remain unchanged since increasing it could have a negative impact on the development of relatively less profitable gas fields. The depletion deduction, however, should be cancelled as it leads to a considerable reduction of the amount of taxable income which has no economic justification, the Committee concluded. The Committee also instituted a progressive oil and gas levy on profits. The initial rate of the levy is 20%, but it will not be collected before quotient of net cumulative revenues divided by the exploration and development expenses reaches or bypasses 1.5. When this quotient exceeds 2.3, the levy will gradually increase to 50%. Since production from the Tamar field began in 2013, it is projected that the government will only begin collecting revenue from the designated levy in 2018. In addition, as per income tax calculations, costs that accumulated during the lease stage of the oil-and-gas-asset development will be awarded accelerated depreciation at a rate of 10%. Investments made by the end of 2013 were given a maximum of amount of accelerated depreciation rate of 15%.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      ITALY: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes Following OECD convention, amounts prior to 1999 are expressed as "euro-fixed series", meaning that we applied the fixed EMU conversion rate (EUR 1 = ITL 1936.27) to data initially expressed in the Italian Lira (ITL). The fiscal year in Italy runs from 1July to 30June. Following OECD convention, data are allocated to the starting calendar year so that, for example, data covering the period July 2005 to June 2006 are allocated to 2005.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      JAPAN: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The Japanese fiscal year runs from 1April through 31March of the following year. Following OECD convention, fiscal-year data are assigned to the closest calendar year; hence data covering the period April 2009 through March 2010 are reported as "2009" in the database.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      KOREA: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Korea coincides with the calendar year.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      LUXEMBOURG: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Luxembourg coincides with the calendar year. Following OECD convention, amounts prior to 1999 are expressed as "euro-fixed series", meaning that we apply the fixed EMU conversion rate (EUR 1 = LUF 40.339) to data initially expressed in the Luxembourg franc (LUF).
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      LATVIA GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Latvia coincides with the calendar year, except for excise tax relief mechanism of diesel used in agriculture transport where fiscal year is from July 1 till June 30. The Ministry of Finance of Latvia annually publish official tax-expenditure data on the website of the Ministry of Finance.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      NETHERLANDS: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in the Netherlands coincides with the calendar year. Tax-expenditure estimates for the years 2001-09 were provided by the Ministry of Finance. All other data estimates come from publicly available government sources as indicated below. Producer Support Estimate The taxes and fees that apply to exploration and production of oil and natural gas in the Netherlands are described in the 2003 Mining Act. Income from the production of hydrocarbons is subject to the standard statutory rate of corporate income tax (25%) and a State Profit Share (SPS) levy at a 50% rate, which is itself deductible for income-tax purposes. Royalties are also levied on the onshore extraction of oil and gas at rates that vary between 0% and 7% (or more when the price of imported crude oil exceeds EUR25 per barrel). Oil and gas companies operating upstream in the Netherlands have the ability to deduct an extra 10% of their costs from their taxable income, a provision known as the "cost uplift" or "capital uplift". Exploration expenditures, whether successful or not, can be written-off in full in the year in which they are incurred.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      NORWAY: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Norway coincides with the calendar year. Tax expenditures in Norway have been reported in the national budget (St. meld. nr.1 (Nasjonalbudsjettet)) since 1999. Since FY2010-2011, estimates of the tax expenditures listed below can be found in the following table in the budgetary reports: "Tax expenditures and sanctions[1] by sector" (Skatteutgifter og -sanksjoner for næringslivet). Producer Support Estimate The taxation of upstream activities on the Norwegian Continental Shelf is directed by the Petroleum Tax Act of 1975; where there are no specific rules given in the PTA, the General Tax Act (GTA) applies. For taxation purposes, income is calculated on the basis of a norm price set by the petroleum price board, giving rise to a difference in revenue figures for taxation and accounting purposes, Income derived from oil and gas production is subject to a special resource tax of 53%, in addition to the ordinary corporate income tax of 25% (in total a marginal tax rate of 78%). A range of expenses are allowable against both the special resource tax and the ordinary corporate income tax; most notably exploration costs are deductible, and a company may claim an annual refund of the tax value of direct and indirect exploration expenses (excluding financial expenses) for each tax year loss. Alternatively, these losses can be carried forward. In practice, this means reimbursement by the government of up to the full value of all the direct and indirect exploration expenses. In this respect, the government shares symmetrically in both profits and losses from exploration and production of petroleum products. Where taxable income is subject to a marginal rate of 78%, investments in offshore production facilities, pipelines and installations are depreciated over 6 years at a rate of 16.66% per annum. Additional allowances are permitted at a rate of 22% (5.5% each year over a four year period) when calculating the special tax basis for the 53% tax rate, such that 89.66% of offshore investments are nominally borne by the government.[2] Other capital investments are depreciated on a declining balance basis at rates between 0 and 30% per annum; for example, exploration rigs are depreciated on a declining balance basis at a maximum rate of 14% per annum. In addition to the regular corporate income tax and special resource tax, petroleum producers must also pay taxes on emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide. As of 1 Jan 2016, the CO2 tax is charged at a rate of NOK 1.02 per standard cubic meter on gas consumed or flared on offshore production installations and at a rate of NOK 0.84 per m3 for natural gas and NOK 1.26 per litre for LPG imported from offshore production facilities or withdrawal from a warehouse. The tax on NOx emissions was NOK 21.17 per kilogram in 2016; however rather than pay this fee companies can choose to pay a fee into a fund (tax deductible at a rate of 78%) and commit to emissions reductions targets. Footnotes: [1] Tax expenditures (tax sanctions) are defined as exceptions from the general rules in the tax system that are applied to certain groups or certain activities and imply lower (higher) government tax revenue. Norway uses revenue forgone method for calculating tax expenditures. There are different benchmarks for calculating tax expenditures related to excise duties and environmental taxes. Excise duties are treated individually which means that each excise tax expenditure calculation relies on a different benchmark. [2] Expenditure incurred prior to May 2013 are subject to an annual uplift of 7.5% (30% in total over four years)
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      NEW ZEALAND: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in New Zealand runs from 1July to 30June. Following OECD convention, data are allocated to the starting calendar year so that data covering the period July 2005 to June 2006 are allocated to 2005. Producer Support Estimate New Zealand’s fiscal regime applicable to the oil and natural-gas industry combines a corporate income tax and royalty-based taxation. The corporate income tax amounts to 28% of taxable income, where taxable income is defined as any assessable income less deductions and net losses, the latter of which can be carried forward indefinitely. Generally, companies cannot deduct expenditures of a capital nature when incurred. However, deductions for certain exploration and development expenditures of a capital nature are available for oil and natural-gas companies (see Tax Deductions for Petroleum-Mining Expenditures). Depending on the year of the discovery, different royalty regimes apply. For discoveries made on or after 1995, royalties are set out in detail in the 2005 Minerals Programme for Petroleum and comprise of the following: an ad valorem royalty (AVR) component of 5% payable on the basis of either a sales price received or, where there has been no sale or no arm’s length sale, the deemed sales price; and an accounting profits royalty (APR) component of 20% payable on the difference between revenue received from the sale of products and the costs of extracting, processing and selling those products up to the point of sale. In case of an exploration permit, the permit holder is liable to pay only the AVR. For all mining permits with net sales above NZD1 million, the permit holder is required to calculate for each period for which a royalty return must be provided to both the AVR and the APR, and pay whichever is higher. Typically, AVR is paid in the early years of production as prior costs are netted against revenue and at the end of the field’s life, as production falls. APR is typically paid during the peak years of production of non-marginal fields. In order to encourage exploration for new natural-gas reserves, the government reduced royalty rates from June 2004 through 31December 2009 (see Reduction in Royalty Payments for Petroleum). For discoveries after 31 December 2009, the same royalty rates that are in operation before 30 June 2004 are applicable. More generally, royalties are payable for petroleum that is (1) discovered and sold, (2) used in the production process as fuel, (3) exchanged or transferred out of permit boundaries without sale or (3) left unsold at the expiry of the permit (Ernst and Young, 2013). No royalties are payable on petroleum that is flared or returned to natural reservoirs within the permit boundaries (e.g. the re-injection of gas). In 2008, the government introduced an emissions trading scheme (ETS) for greenhouse gases. Legislation for the scheme has been subsequently amended with the latest enacted in 2012. There are no special exceptions for the oil and gas sector under the current ETS regime.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      POLAND: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Poland normally coincides with the calendar year. Corporations, however, may choose a different starting point of the fiscal year. Producer Support Estimate Most of Polish state aid to the energy sector is apportioned to the coal industry. Poland’s heavy reliance on coal stems from both a large domestic endowment of this fuel and the fact that it used to have a limited access to foreign-exchange earnings with which it could have imported other fuels during the communist period. Because coal-mining was considered a strategic sector, the state subsidised the production of coal, providing various social benefits to coal miners and regulating coal prices to keep them low. With the economic transition of the early 1990s, the state envisioned to transform coal mines into self-reliant commercial companies that would adapt to the conditions of a free-market economy. The continued policy of price controls, however, meant that the industry had a very limited potential for economic growth and hence, needed further state assistance. All subsequent plans for restructuring the coal sector throughout the 1990s supported capacity adjustment, shutting down unprofitable mines and reducing employment to levels that would improve productivity. The overarching objective of those programmes was thus to make the coal-mining sector profitable. These programmes proved ineffective due to the lack of consensus between the government and the trade unions. This changed in 1998 as the new government, supported by Solidarno?? (the biggest Polish trade union), devised a coal-mining restructuring plan, the Reforma górnictwa w?gla kamiennego w Polsce w latach 1998 - 2002. The plan provided additional funding for social schemes and expressed a commitment to write-off the debt which the mines have accumulated over the years. Another plan adopted in 2003 - the Program restrukturyzacji górnictwa w?gla kamiennego w Polsce w latach 2003-2006 - pursued similar objectives. When Poland joined the European Union in 2004, state aid became subject to the Community rules. In practice, this development meant that coal-mining restructuring plans would have to be compatible with the common market, and that the European Commission would need to approve any state-aid scheme before it reached recipients. The Council of Ministers has so far adopted two documents regarding the restructuring of the sector: the Restrukturyzacja górnictwa w?gla kamiennego w latach 2004-2006 oraz strategia na lata 2007-2010, which was then replaced by Strategia dzia?alno?ci górnictwa w?gla kamiennego w Polsce w latach 2007-2015. Poland does not provide subsidies to coal-mining under article 5-3 (current production aid). All current subsidies therefore result from article 7 (aid to cover exceptional costs) and are associated either with mine decommissioning or investment aid to operating mines (for up to 30% of the total investments made). The former measures are mainly allocated to the GSSE as most of them do not increase current production or consumption of coal. The latter are allocated to the PSE since they directly support coal producers. The coal-mining sector underwent major restructuring through a series of management mergers and mine closures. At the beginning of the transition, the industry comprised of 71 independent mines. In 1993, the management of hard-coal production was taken over by seven joint-stock holding companies that held the assets of 60 mines. Four mines remained stand-alone enterprises, while the rest was shut down on unprofitability grounds. The Polish coal-mining sector now comprises 31 mines grouped into seven joint-stock holding companies and is dominated by three state-owned firms: Europe’s largest hard-coal company, Kompania W?glowa S.A. (KW), Katowicki Holding W?glowy S.A. (KHW) and Jastrz?bska Spó?ka W?glowa S.A. In 2000, two state-owned liquidation companies, Spó?ka Restrukturyzacji Kopal? S.A. (SRK) and Bytomska Spó?ka Restrukturyzacji Kopal? Sp. z o.o. (BSRK), were given responsibility to manage mine decommissioning. Since 2006, only two companies in Poland have been benefitting from state aid: KW and KHW. Aid is also being envisaged for the SRK (BSRK was consolidated into SRK in 2009).
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      PORTUGAL: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes Portugal’s fiscal year coincides with the calendar year. Following OECD convention, amounts prior to 1999 are expressed as "euro-fixed series," meaning that the fixed EMU conversion rate (EUR 1 = PRT 200.482) is applied to data initially expressed in Portuguese Escudos (PRT).
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      SLOVAK REPUBLIC: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in the Slovak Republic coincides with the calendar year. Data prior to 2009 were converted to "euro-fixed series" by the Ministry of Finance (unless otherwise specified).
    • julho 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 14 julho, 2019
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      SLOVENIA: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Slovenia coincides with the calendar year. The conversion into EUR for the estimates in the period prior to 2007 was made by the Ministry of Finance, which kindly provided all estimates and fuel allocations.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      SWEDEN: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Sweden coincides with the calendar year. Producer Support Estimate No producer support estimates were identified.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      TURKEY: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in Turkey coincides with the calendar year.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      SOUTH AFRICA: GENERAL METADATA Data documentation General notes The fiscal year in South Africa runs from 1April to 31March of the following year. Following OECD conventions, data are allocated to the starting calendar year so that data covering the period April2005 to March2006 are allocated to 2005. The initial data were obtained from the National Treasury and the National Budgets (not the Provincial Budgets). For several estimates, data are taken from annual reports of companies such as Eskom, from other government organisations such as the South Africa Revenue Service SARS), and from other organisations working in the field. Methodological note A large part of support to fossil fuels in non-OECD countries (and in a few member countries such as Mexico) takes the form of price controls or regulations benefitting final consumers. In many cases, this occurs through the government mandating state-owned oil and gas companies to charge lower retail prices, thereby lowering the revenues these companies collect through sales of fuel. This often results in the government subsequently intervening to compensate state-owned oil and gas companies for the losses they incurred in the downstream sector due to the regulated prices, with this compensation taking many forms. Some governments choose, for example, to compensate national oil and gas companies through targeted tax concessions (e.g., VAT exemptions) or equity injections. This inventory focusses on the direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that encourage the production or consumption of fossil fuels, including those benefitting national oil and gas companies. Estimates of the support directly conferred to final consumers by regulated prices are available from the International Energy Agency (IEA), which estimates these induced transfers as part of its annual "World Energy Outlook" publication. Readers are therefore advised not to add together the OECD and IEA estimates given the significant risk of overlap and double-counting this involves. Producer Support Estimate The fiscal regime applicable to oil, natural-gas, and mining companies in South Africa consists mostly of a corporate income tax, indirect taxes, and royalties. Additionally, oil, natural-gas, and coal-mining companies pay the indirect taxes paid by other sectors, including the regular VAT and the customs duties and import tariffs that are levied on purchased inputs. Resident and non-resident companies are liable for corporation tax at a rate of 28 %. In addition, the government levies various withholding taxes including: on royalties paid to non-residents (at a rate of 15%), on interest payable to non-residents (at a rate of 15%), on dividends (at a rate of 15%), and on the disposal of immovable property (at a rate of 7.5% for a company). Finally, capital gains tax is payable at a rate of 18.65%, with an expected increase to 22.4% for the 2017 fiscal year. The tenth schedule to the Income Tax Act of 1962 sets out specific provisions relating to the taxation of upstream oil and gas exploration and production. These measures include deductions for all expenditures and losses related to exploration and post exploration losses, as well as 100% of capital spend on exploration activities and 50% on post-exploration activities. Furthermore, dividends paid out of income relating to oil and gas activities are not liable to the 15% withholding tax described above. Prior to 2010, South Africa’s oil, natural-gas, and mining companies did not have to pay royalties. The Mineral and Petroleum Resources Royalty Act (MPRRA) of 2008 imposed royalties related to extractive activities, with the rate calculated as a function of gross sales and profit (specifically, earnings before interest and tax), and varying between 0.5% and 5% (for refined resources) and between 0.5% and 7% for non-refined resources). Exemptions apply for certain small producers, but these are also applicable to operators extracting non-energy minerals. Given the size of South Africa’s total mining sector, royalty concessions such as these lack the specificity required to be characterised as support measures for the purpose of the present inventory.
    • maio 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 03 maio, 2019
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      Data include pension funds per the OECD classification by type of pension plans and by type of pension funds. All types of plans are included (occupational and personal, mandatory and voluntary). The OECD classification considers both funded and book reserved pension plans that are workplace-based (occupational pension plans) or accessed directly in retail markets (personal pension plans). Both mandatory and voluntary arrangements are included. The data include plans where benefits are paid by a private sector entity (classified as private pension plans by the OECD) as well as those paid by a funded public sector entity. A full description of the OECD classification can be found at:http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/0/49/38356329.pdf. Pension funds include also some personal pension arrangements like the Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) in the United States as well as funds for government workers. The coverage of the statistics follows the regulatory and supervisory framework. All authorised pension funds are therefore normally covered by the Global Pension Statistics exercise. Assets pertaining to reserve funds in social security systems are excluded.
  • G
    • outubro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 15 outubro, 2019
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      The GID-DB is a database providing researchers and policymakers with key data on gender-based discrimination in social institutions. This data helps analyse women’s empowerment and understand gender gaps in other key areas of development.Covering 180 countries and territories, the GID-DB contains comprehensive information on legal, cultural and traditional practices that discriminate against women and girls.
    • setembro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 24 setembro, 2019
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    • março 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 05 março, 2019
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      This table provides information on the main relevant indicators. The data have mainly been supplied by the World Bank, and cover, where available: -Current Gross National Income (GNI) in US $ millions; -GNI per capita (US $); -Population; -Energy use as kilogram of oil per capita; -Average Life Expectancy of Adults; and -Adult Literacy Rate as a percentage of the country population. Data for Sudan include South Sudan, with the exception of total population, which is reported separately.
    • fevereiro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 27 fevereiro, 2019
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      Bilateral ODA commitments by purpose. Data cover the years 2005 to 2009. Amounts are expressed in USD million. The sectoral distribution of bilateral ODA commitments refers to the economic sector of destination (i.e. the specific area of the recipient's economic or social structure whose development is, or is intended to be fostered by the aid), rather than to the type of goods or services provided. These are aggregates of individual projects notified under the Creditor Reporting System, supplemented by reporting on the sectoral distribution of technical co-operation, and on actual disbursements of food and emergency aid.
    • dezembro 2018
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 03 dezembro, 2018
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      Geolocation of urban agglomerations in West Africa.
    • outubro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 10 outubro, 2019
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      This dataset contains selected indicators for monitoring progress towards green growth to support policy making and inform the public at large. The indicator bring together the OECD's statistics, indicators and measures of progress. The dataset covers OECD countries as well as BRIICS economies (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa), and selected countries when possible. The indicators are selected according to well specified criteria and embedded in a conceptual framework, which is structured around four groups to capture the main features of green growth: Environmental and resource productivity, to indicate whether economic growth is becoming greener with more efficient use of natural capital and to capture aspects of production which are rarely quantified in economic models and accounting frameworks; The natural asset base, to indicate the risks to growth from a declining natural asset base; Environmental quality of life, to indicate how environmental conditions affect the quality of life and wellbeing of people; Economic opportunities and policy responses, to indicate the effectiveness ofpolicies in delivering green growth and describe the societal responses needed to secure business and employment opportunities.
    • agosto 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 agosto, 2019
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      Productivity is a key driver of economic growth and changes in living standards. Labour productivity growth implies a higher level of output for unit of labour input (hours worked or persons employed). This can be achieved if more capital is used in production or through improved overall efficiency with which labour and capital are used together, i.e., higher multifactor productivity growth (MFP). Productivity is also a key driver of international competitiveness, e.g. as measured by Unit Labour Costs (ULC).   The OECD Productivity Database aims at providing users with the most comprehensive and the latest productivity estimates. The update cycle is on a rolling basis, i.e. each variable in the dataset is made publicly available as soon as it is updated in the sources databases. However, some time lag may arise which affects individual series and/or countries for two reasons: first, hours worked data from the OECD Employment Outlook are typically updated less frequently than the OECD Annual National Accounts Database; second, source data for capital services are typically available in annual national accounts later than source data for labour productivity and ULCs.   Note to users: The OECD Productivity Database accounts for the methodological changes in national accounts' statistics, such as the implementation of the System of National Accounts 2008 (2008 SNA) and the implementation of the international industrial classification ISIC Rev.4. These changes had an impact on output, labour and capital measurement. For Chile, China, Colombia, India, Japan, Turkey and the Russian Federation the indicators are in line with the System of National Accounts 1993 (1993 SNA); for all other countries, the indicators presented are based on the 2008 SNA
  • I
    • setembro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 17 setembro, 2019
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      This data deals with premiums written by classes of non-life insurance for the business written in the reporting country.
    • outubro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 08 outubro, 2019
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      Most of the data published in this database are taken from the individual contributions of national correspondents appointed by the OECD Secretariat with the approval of the authorities of Member countries. Consequently, these data have not necessarily been harmonised at international level. This network of correspondents, constituting the Continuous Reporting System on Migration (SOPEMI), covers most OECD Member countries as well as the Baltic States, Bulgaria and Romania. SOPEMI has no authority to impose changes in data collection procedures. It is an observatory which, by its very nature, has to use existing statistics. However, it does play an active role in suggesting what it considers to be essential improvements in data collection and makes every effort to present consistent and well-documented statistics.
    • julho 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 02 julho, 2019
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      This table contains figures on affiliates under foreign control by investing country in the total manufacturing, total services and total business enterprise sectors.
  • L
    • agosto 2017
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 09 janeiro, 2018
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      Rivers Data show water quality of selected rivers. Water quality is measured in terms of annual mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen and BOD; of nitrates, phosphorus and ammonium; and of lead, cadmuim, chromium and copper. The rivers selected are main rivers draining large watersheds in the countries chosen; the measurement locations are at the mouths or downstream frontiers of the rivers. These parameters provide information concerning the state and trends of pollution by organic matter and nutrients, heavy metals and other metals. In reading the data, one should compare trends rather than absolute values, since measurement methods vary by country. Lakes Data show trends in annual mean concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in selected lakes. These parameters concern nutrient concentrations and related degrees of eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs. The interpretation of these tables should take into account variations in the methods of sampling (e.g. sampling location and number of measurements at different sampling locations and in different years).
  • M
    • janeiro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 06 março, 2019
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      This dataset presents members' total use of the multilateral system i.e. both their multilateral aid ("Core contributions to") and bilateral aid channelled through ("Contributions through") multilateral organisations. These data originate from members' reporting at item-level in the CRS and are published here starting with 2011 data (item-level data for multilateral aid is not complete in CRS for earlier years).
  • N
    • setembro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 24 setembro, 2019
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      It presents simplified non-financial accounts, from the gross value added to the net lending/net borrowing. In this table, the total economy is broken down in three main institutional sectors: corporations, general government, households and non-profit institutions serving households. It has been prepared from statistics reported to the OECD by Member countries in their answers to annual national accounts questionnaire. This questionnaire is designed to collect internationally comparable data according to the 1993 SNA. Unit of measure used - In national currency, in current prices. Expressed in millions. For the Euro area countries, the data in national currency for all years are calculated using the fixed conversion rates against the euro.
  • O
    • março 2016
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 27 abril, 2016
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    • julho 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 14 julho, 2019
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      This OECD inventory maps existing cross-country surveys that provide information on the characteristics of people's jobs. The information included in this inventory covers international surveys conducted since the early 1990s that are based on individuals' self-reported assessment of their current job, for 160 countries over 25 years. Survey questions are grouped into 19 indicators. For each indicator, binary codes (1 and 0) show whether indicators are available or not for the various countries and years. The inventory also provides users with detailed documentation on the questions used in the various surveys for measuring these indicators.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 23 abril, 2019
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      This table contains figures on the activity affiliates located abroad by industry according to the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC Revision 4). The units used to present data in AMNE are millions of national currency for monetary variables and units for the other variables. Monetary variables are in current prices. Euro-area countries: national currency data is expressed in euro beginning with the year of entry into the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). For years prior to the year of entry into EMU, data have been converted from the former national currency using the appropriate irrevocable conversion rate. This presentation facilitates comparisons within a country over time and ensures that the historical evolution is preserved. Please note, however, that pre-EMU euro are a notional unit and should not be used to form area aggregates or to carry out cross-country comparisons.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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  • P
    • março 2016
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 28 novembro, 2016
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      The Population and Vital Statistics dataset presents components of change in the population during one year and mid-year population data for the 34 OECD member countries. Data are presented in thousands of persons and as rates in per 1000. The components of change in the population during one year are presented as follow: the first statistics refer to the population on January 1st for each year, the natural increase of the population is the difference between the number of births and deaths over the calendar year, the addition of net migration and statistical adjustments to the natural increase gives the total increase of the population over the calendar year. The addition of the total population increase to the population on January 1st gives the population on December 31st. Note: No longer this dataset be collected by OECD. Population and demographic events are available from the United Nation database at "https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Download/Standard/Population/."    
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Sandeep Reddy
      Acesso em 01 agosto, 2019
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      Private transactions are those undertaken by firms and individuals resident in the reporting country.
    • outubro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 16 outubro, 2019
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      This dataset presents activities in support of development from philanthropic foundations since 2009, including bilateral activities and core contributions to multilateral organisations. Bilateral activities from this dataset can also be found in the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) database. Collecting data on private philanthropy for development is work in progress, which may explain break in series for some foundations.
  • R
    • junho 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 21 junho, 2019
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      Real hourly and annual minimum wages are statutory minimum wages converted into a common hourly and annual pay period for the 28 OECD countries and 4 non-member countries for which they are available. The resulting estimates are deflated by national Consumer Price Indices (CPI). The data are then converted into a common currency unit using either US $ current exchange rates or US $ Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) for private consumption expenditures. Real hourly and annual minimum wages are calculated first by deflating the series using the consumer price index taking 2017 as the base year.  The series are then converted into a common currency unit (USD) using Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) for private consumption expenditures in 2017.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 29 abril, 2019
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    • março 2018
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 19 junho, 2018
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      The Regional Database contains annual data from 1995 to the most recent available year (generally 2016 for demographic, 2015 for labour market data and 2014 for regional accounts, innovation and social statistics). The data collection is undertaken by the Directorate of Public Governance and Territorial Development (GOV). Statistics are collected through an annual questionnaire sent to the delegates of the Working Party on Territorial Indicators (WPTI), Eurostat, and access of National Statistical Offices websites.
    • março 2018
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 13 junho, 2018
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      The Regional Database contains annual data from 1995 to the most recent available year (generally 2014 for demographic and labour market data, 2013 for regional accounts, innovation and social statistics). The data collection is undertaken by the Directorate of Public Governance and Territorial Development (GOV). Statistics are collected through an annual questionnaire sent to the delegates of the Working Party on Territorial Indicators (WPTI), and through access to the web-sites of National Statistical Offices and Eurostat.
    • novembro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 07 novembro, 2019
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      The Regional Database contains annual data from 1995 to the most recent available year. The data collection is undertaken by the Directorate of Public Governance and Territorial Development, within the Regional Development Policy division (GOV/RDP). Statistics are collected through an annual questionnaire sent to the delegates of the Working Party on Territorial Indicators (WPTI), and through access to the web-sites of National Statistical Offices and Eurostat. The WPTI is responsible for developing regional (subnational) and urban statistics and providing analysis to support policy evaluations. The Regional Database includes statistics on the regional distribution of resources, regional disparities, and how regions contribute to national growth and the well-being of society. Under this framework, the Regional Database is one of the pillars for providing indicators to the publication OECD Regions at a Glance (link).
    • abril 2018
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Sandeep Reddy
      Acesso em 12 julho, 2018
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      The Regional Database contains annual data from 1995 to the most recent available year (generally 2016 for demographic, 2015 for labor market data and 2014 for regional accounts, innovation and social statistics).
    • setembro 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 24 setembro, 2019
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      The Regional Database contains annual data from 1995 to the most recent available year (generally 2014 for demographic and labour market data, 2013 for regional accounts, innovation and social statistics).   In any analytical study conducted at sub-national levels, the choice of the territorial unit is of prime importance. The territorial grids (TL2 and TL3) used in this database are officially established and relatively stable in all member countries, and are used by many as a framework for implementing regional policies. This classification - which, for European countries, is largely consistent with the Eurostat classification - facilitates greater comparability of regions at the same territorial level. The differences with the Eurostat NUTS classification concern Belgium, Greece and the Netherlands where the NUTS 2 level correspond to the OECD TL3 and Germany where the NUTS1 corresponds to the OECD TL2 and the OECD TL3 corresponds to 97 spatial planning regions (Groups of Kreise). For the United Kingdom the Eurostat NUTS1 corresponds to the OECD TL2. Due to limited data availability, labour market indicators in Canada are presented for a different grid (groups of TL3 regions). Since these breakdowns are not part of the OECD official territorial grids, for the sake of simplicity they are labelled as Non Official Grids (NOG).
    • julho 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 02 julho, 2019
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      The Regional well-being dataset presents eleven dimensions central for well-being at local level and for 395 OECD regions, covering material conditions (income, jobs and housing), quality of life (education, health, environment, safety and access to services) and subjective well-being (social network support and life satisfaction). The set of indicators selected to measure these dimensions is a combination of people's individual attributes and their local conditions, and in most cases, are available over two different years (2000 and 2014). Regions can be easily visualised and compared to other regions through the interactive website [www.oecdregionalwellbeing.org]. The dataset, the website and the publications "Regions at a Glance" and "How’s life in your region?" are outputs designed from the framework for regional and local well-being. The Regional income distribution dataset presents comparable data on sub-national differences in income inequality and poverty for OECD countries. The data by region provide information on income distribution within regions (Gini coefficients and income quintiles), and relative income poverty (with poverty thresholds set in respect of the national population) for 2013. These new data complement international assessments of differences across regions in living conditions by documenting how household income is distributed within regions and how many people are poor relatively to the typical citizen of their country. For analytical purposes, the OECD classifies regions as the first administrative tier of sub-national government, so called Territorial Level 2 or TL2 in the OECD classification. This classification is used by National Statistical Offices to collect information and it represents in many countries the framework for implementing regional policies. Well-being indicators are shown for the 395 TL2 OECD regions, equivalent of the NUTS2 for European countries, with the exception for Estonian where well-being data are presented at a smaller (TL3) level and for the Regional Income dataset, where Greece, Hungary and Poland data are presented at a more aggregated (NUTS1) level.
    • dezembro 2018
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 03 dezembro, 2018
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      Data on government sector receipts, and on taxes in particular, are basic inputs to most structural economic descriptions and economic analyses and are increasingly used in international comparisons. This annual database presents a unique set of detailed and internationally comparable tax data in a common format for all OECD countries.
  • S
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      The SIGI is built on 27 innovative variables measuring discriminatory social institutions, which are grouped into 4 dimensions: discrimination in the family, restricted physical integrity, restricted access to productive and financial resources, and restricted civil liberties.Lower values indicate lower levels of discrimination in social institutions: the SIGI ranges from 0% for no discrimination to 100% for very high discrimination.
    • junho 2016
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 29 julho, 2019
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    • julho 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 02 julho, 2019
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      Survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration. The dataset contains data as reported by donors and national co-ordinators in participating partner countries. The dataset includes all quantitative data collected through the 2006, 2008 and 2011 Surveys.
  • T
    • julho 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 02 julho, 2019
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      TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.
    • maio 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 28 maio, 2019
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      Total Official Flows: the sum of Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Other Official Flows (OOF) represents the total (gross or net) disbursements by the official sector at large to the recipient country shown.
  • W
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 12 abril, 2019
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      World Indicators of Skills for Employment (WISE) provide a comprehensive system of information relating to skills development. WISE presents countries with data upon which they can design skills policies and programs and monitor their impact on key outcomes, including responsiveness to current and emerging patterns of labour market demand, employability, productivity, health status, gender equity and lifelong learning.The database covers the period from 1990 to the present and consists of five inter-related domains of indicators:Contextual factors drive both the supply of and demand for skills.Skill acquisition covers investments in skills, the stock of human capital and its distribution.Skill requirements measure the demand for skills arising in the labour market.The degree of matching captures how well skills obtained through education and training correspond to the skills required in the labour market.Outcomes reflect the impact of skills on economic performance and employment and social outcomes.

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