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The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC is located at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC's data holdings include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active trace gases; carbon cycle and terrestrial carbon management datasets and analyses; and global/regional climate data and time series. CDIAC provides scientific and data management support for projects sponsored by a number of agencies, including the AmeriFlux Network, continuous observations of ecosystem level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum at different time scales for sites in the Americas; the Ocean CO2 Data Program of CO2 measurements taken aboard ocean research vessels; DOE-supported FACE experiments, which evaluate plant and ecosystem response to elevated CO2 concentrations; and the HIPPO project, which is analyzing the atmospheric carbon cycle and greenhouse gas concentrations from pole to pole over the Pacific Ocean. CDIAC is supported by DOE's Climate and Environmental Sciences Division within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER).
Annual Estimates of Global Anthropogenic Methane Emissions: 1860-1994. The first estimates, by year, of global man-made emissions of methane, from 1860 through 1994 are provided. The data presented here are revised and updated through 1994. Estimates are provided for total anthropogenic emissions, as well as emissions for the following component categories: Flaring and Venting of Natural Gas; Oil and Gas Supply Systems, Excluding Flaring; Coal Mining; Biomass Burning; Livestock Farming; Rice Farming and Related Activities; Landfills. Changes in emissions over time were estimated by treating emissions as a function of variables (such as population or coal production) for which historical time series are available.
In summary, this database provides estimates of regional and global net carbon fluxes, on a year-by-year basis from 1850 through 2005, resulting from changes in land use (such as harvesting of forest products and clearing for agriculture), taking into account not only the initial removal and oxidation of the carbon in the vegetation, but also subsequent regrowth and changes in soil carbon. The net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use from 1850 to 2005 was modeled as a function of documented land-use change and changes in aboveground and belowground carbon following changes in land use.
Global and hemispheric temperature anomalies - land and marine instrumental records. These global and hemispheric temperature anomaly time series, which incorporate land and marine data, are continually updated and expanded by P. Jones of the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) with help from colleagues at the CRU and other institutions. The land portion of the database from which the Jones et al. time series are computed consists of surface air temperature (SAT) data (land-surface meteorological data and fixed-position weather ship data) from over 3000 station records that have been corrected for non-climatic errors, such as station shifts and/or instrument changes (Jones 1994). The marine data used are compiled at the Hadley Centre of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office and consist of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) that incorporate in situ measurements from ships and buoys. The land and marine data components are combined by first interpolating each to the same 5° x 5° latitude/longitude grid boxes. The combined version takes values from each component and weights the grid boxes where both occur (coastlines and islands).
Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption in the U.S.A. The data from which these carbon-emissions estimates were derived are values of fuel consumed: in billions of cubic feet, for natural gas; in millions of barrels, for petroleum products; and in thousands of short tons, for coal. The resulting emissions estimates are expressed as teragrams of carbon. A teragram is 10^12 grams, or 10^6 metric tons. The fuel-consumption values were multiplied by their respective thermal conversion factors, which are in units of heat energy per unit of fuel (i.e., per cubic foot, barrel, or ton). In keeping with conventional usage in the United States, values are for the gross (higher) heating values of the respective fuels. The results are expressed in units of heat energy derived from the fuel. These energy values were then multiplied by their respective carbon dioxide emission factors, in units of the mass of carbon emitted per unit of energy liberated by the oxidation of the carbon in the fuel.
Global, Hemispheric, and Zonal Temperature Deviations (Seasonal and Annual). The observed radiosonde data from the Comprehensive Aerological Reference Data Set (CARDS) (Eskridge et al. 1995) were taken as the primary input for obtaining the series. These data were for the global radiosonde observational network through 2001. Since 2002, the AEROSTAB data (uper-air observations obtained through communication channels), collected at RIHMI-WDC in Obninsk, have been used. Both of these data sources were for the global radiosonde observational network. The CARDS data set is known as the most complete collection of radiosonde data.
Surface temperatures and thickness-derived temperatures from a 54-station, globally distributed radiosonde network have been used to estimate global, hemispheric, and zonal annual and seasonal temperature deviations. Most of the temperature values used were column-mean temperatures, obtained from the differences in height (thickness) between constant-pressure surfaces at individual radiosonde stations. The pressure-height data before 1980 were obtained from published values in Monthly Climatic Data for the World. Between 1980 and 1990, Angell used data from both the Climatic Data for the World and the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) Network received at the National Meteorological Center. Between 1990 and 1995, the data were obtained only from GTS, and since 1995 the data have been obtained from National Center for Atmospheric Research files. The data are evaluated as deviations from the mean based on the interval 1961-1990. Time series for the earth's surface, and the 850-300mb, 300-100mb and 100-50mb layers are presented for north polar (60-90N), north temperate (30-60N), tropical (30S-30N), south temperate (30-60S) and south polar (60-90S) climate zones, as well as for the Northern and Southern hemispheres and the globe. The data presentation is more compact than in the case of Angell's 63-station network, with two fewer layers and three fewer climate zones, for a total of eight time series.
CITE AS: Angell, J.K. 2012. Global, hemispheric, and zonal temperature deviations derived from a 54-station radiosonde network. In Trends Online: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.005
Data Tables of Global, Hemispheric, and Zonal Temperature Anomalies. Anomalies are relative to the 1951-1980 base period means. The NASA GISS Surface Temperature (GISTEMP) analysis provides a measure of the changing global surface temperature with monthly resolution for the period since 1880, when a reasonably global distribution of meteorological stations was established.