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Brazil is the largest country in South America and Latin America, and the fifth-largest country in the world in terms of population. According to the latest census figures, the total population estimate for 2015 is 207.8 million people that accounts for 2.83% of the total world population. It means that one person out of every 35 people on the planet can be a resident of Brazil. Looking back, in the year of 1960, Brazil had a population of 72.5 million people. The main factor behind the rapid population growth since 1960 is immigration both from Europe and Africa, as well as other points of the world. Current high population growth is explained by the high level (more than half of Brazil population) of young people under the age of 20 years. 

Concerning future population projections, Brazil is expected to continue rising. Population division of the UN expects the Brazil population to peak at 238 million people in 2050 and then to decrease to 200 million people by 2100.

As for the population of Brazilian cities, it is booming every year. For example, more than ninety percent of its population is homed in one of the largest cities in state Sao Paulo. This is mainly due to the migration of the rural population and heavily fraught with problems in the social sphere. This applies to both education, health, and the housing problem, which now do not meet the needs of society.

Brazil has exceptionally low population density. Almost all of the its population (about 90%) is concentrated in 3 key areas of the country: the Northeast, Southeast and South, while the vast territory of the North and the Center-West, is 2/3 of the country's territory, home to only 9% of Brazilians. The highest degree of concentration of population is observed on the Atlantic coast, occupying only about 7% of the country and to focus about 50% of the population.

The ethnic and racial composition of the population is very complex because the Brazilian ethnic group was formed under the influence of mass migration from Europe and Africa. Indigenous people (Indians) are not more than 10% of the population. They live mainly in the interior forest areas of the country. The main part of the population is the Brazilians, they are ethnicity featuring a large racial diversity: white, black, brown and yellow. Portuguese culture and language, the basis of mixed Brazilian culture, have incorporated many elements of African and Native American cultures.

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