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United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

UNECE's major aim is to promote pan-European economic integration. UNECE includes 56 member States in Europe, North America and Asia. However, all interested United Nations member States may participate in the work of UNECE. Over 70 international professional organizations and other non-governmental organizations take part in UNECE activities.

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    • abril 2019
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 22 abril, 2019
      Selecionar Conjunto de dados
      Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international official sources. Definitions: Gender pay gap is the difference between men’s and women’s average earnings from employment, shown as a percentage of men’s average earnings.The UNECE gender statistics database presents two indicators on gender pay gap, which represent two different concerns of gender equality. Gender Pay Gap in hourly wage rates refers to the gender gap in average hourly earnings. This indicator aims to capture the difference between men’s and women’s overall position in the labor market. It measures the difference between men’s and women’s wage rates independent of the number of hours worked, the type of activity or the type of occupation. Gender Pay Gap in monthly earnings refers to the gender gap in average monthly earnings. This indicator aims to capture the variance between men’s and women’s earnings over a specific period of time. It reflects differences in time worked and type of work performed, which translates into gender differences in economic autonomy. Wage rates are earnings elements meant to be measured, as stipulated by the ILO Resolution concerning an integrated system of wages statistics (ILO, 1973), in relation to an appropriate time period such as the hour, day, week, month or other customary period used for purposes of determining the wage rates concerned. In the case of these statistics, the reference time period is the hour. Wage rates should include basic wages, cost-of-living allowances and other guaranteed and regularly paid allowances, but exclude overtime payments, bonuses and gratuities, family allowances and other social security payments made by employers. Ex gratia payments in kind, supplementary to normal wage rates, are also excluded. Earnings relate to remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as for annual vacation, other paid leave or holidays. Earnings include direct wages and salaries for the time worked, or work done, remuneration for time not worked, bonuses and gratuities and housing and family allowances paid by the employer directly to his employee. Earnings exclude employers’ contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security and pension schemes and also the benefits received by employees under these schemes. Earnings also exclude severance and termination pay. Gross earnings refer to total earnings before any deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes, life insurance premiums, union dues and other obligations of employees. Net earnings refer to pay allocated to the worker after deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes, life insurance premiums, union dues and other obligations of employees. For the EU and EFTA member states, data on Gender Pay Gap in hourly wage rates cover the economic activities as follows: industry, construction and services, except public administration, defense, compulsory social security, activities of households as employers and extra-territorial organisations and bodies (NACE Rev.2, sections from B to S excluding O). .. - data not available Country: Albania 2000: data refer to October 1998. Country: Armenia For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, data cover paid employees. Country: Austria Gross monthly earnings refer to the monthly amount in the main job. It includes usual paid overtime, tips and commission but excludes income from investments, assets, savings, stocks and shares. Profit share and bonuses are taken into account. Supplement payments (13th, 14th month, holiday pay...) are not included as they are not surveyed in this question, but they could be modeld (average gross monthly earning per group x14/12) under the simplified assumption that people are employed for the whole year and all receive these benefits. Country: Belarus Data refer to December of each year. Country: Belarus Collection method: enterprise-based data. Enterprises with less than 100 employees are excluded. Country: Bulgaria Data cover employees only and are compiled from enterprise survey (four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey). Overtime payments are included in average earnings. Country: Canada For GPG in hourly earnings, data covers employees only, self-employed are excluded. Country: Croatia For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, basic earnings exclude housing and family allowances. Refers to NACE Rev 2 activities B-S Country: Cyprus Data are based on the results of the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) for years 2006 and 2010. Data for 2006 and 2010 have been revised to better reflect the definitions provided by UNECE.Hourly Wage Rate includes normal salary and regular bonuses paid to the employee (including payments for shift work). It excludes overtime payments, irregular bonuses and payments in kind.Monthly earnings include normal salary, regular bonuses paid to the employee (including payments for shift work) and payments for overtime. They exclude irregular bonuses and payments in kind.Coverage: Enterprises in all economic activities, excluding Agriculture, Fishing, Activities of Private Households and Extra-territorial Organisations. All enterprises covered had one or more employees. Self-employed are not covered.Geographical coverage: data refer to Government controlled areas only. Country: Czechia Since 2011 all employees included in the sample surveys,including employees of enterprises with less than ten employees, employees of non-profit organizations, and also own-account workers that had not been measuredbefore. Country: Estonia For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, data exclude self-employed persons. From 2014, breakdown by education is according to ISCED-2011. Country: Finland The method of defining part/full-timers changed in 2001. Country: Finland Data do not include irregular bonuses, housing and family allowances. Average monthly earnings data cover only full-time employees. Country: France For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered in data up to 2009. From 2014 data include overseas departments. Country: Georgia Territorial change (2000 onward): Data do not cover Abkhazia AR and Tskhinvali Region Country: Germany For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered. From 2014 breakdown by education compiled using ISCED-2011. Country: Greece For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2002 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data from 2006 on are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered. Country: Hungary Data include only full-time employees. B-S (-O), 10 employees or more Country: Iceland Change in definition (2000 - 2004): Only private sector - econmic activities ISIC-rev.3 D,F,G,I Country: Iceland Change in definition (2005 - 2008): Only private sector - econmic activities ISIC-rev.3 D,F,G,I,J Country: Iceland Change in definition (2009 onward): Private and public sector - economic activities ISIC-rev.4 C,D,E,F,G,H,J,K,O,P,Q. For all years data refer to average income from employment. Country: Israel Change in definition (2006 - 2012): Data cover both - paid employees and self-employed Country: Italy Monthly earnings data are compiled from households surveys (EU-SILC) from 2006 to 2009 and from European Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) from 2010 onwards. The main difference with the SES definition is that the SES definition refers to the month of october and excludes bonuses and other items not payable each month. There is a break in the series between 2009 and 2010. Country: Kazakhstan Average monthly nominal wages per employee is determined by dividing the amount of accrued payroll to the actual number of employees and the number of months in the reporting period. Country: Kyrgyzstan Figures for hourly earnings are obtained by dividing the average monthly earnings by the average number of monthly working hours. Country: Latvia Additional information (2002 onward): Data by education level are calculated for enterprises with number of employees 10 and more for NACE Rev.1.1 sections C-K (excluding L) on 2002 and 2006 and for NACE Rev.2 sections B-S (excluding O) on 2010 according to the methodology of structural indicator of European Comission Gender Pay Gap (GPG). Country: Latvia Data cover paid employees only. Part-timers earnings have been equivalised to fill-time units. All data exclude remuneration of kind. Country: Lithuania The gross earnings data on which GPG in monthly earnings are based exclude housing and family allowances. Country: Luxembourg For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, data are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Average monthly earnings are based on full-time equivalent employees, reference month is october. NACE B to S exclunding O Country: Malta For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered. Country: Moldova, Republic of From 2012 information is presented without the data on districts from the left side of the river Nistru and municipality Bender. Through 2011 data are for September for units with 20 and more employees. Starting with 2012 data are for units with one and more employees. Country: Netherlands The underlying average earnings refer to employees only and do not include bonuses, gratuities, housing and family allowances. Country: Norway Data refer to full-time equivalent of paid employees only. Reference period: III quarter of each year. Data includes various additional allowances, bonuses, commissions and do not include payment for overtime work. Country: Poland Change in definition (2001 - 2004): Data refer to full-time employees only. Family allowances are not inclueded. Country: Poland Change in definition (2006 onward): Data cover employees only. Family allowances are not included. Country: Romania Additional information (1990 - 2001): Data cover the entire country and are related to enterprises with 1+ employees. The average monthly gross earnings refers to the entire year. Country: Russian Federation Change in definition (2005 - 2013): Underlying Earnings data do not include end of year, seniority, bonus payments and other nonrecurrent payments . Data include employees worked whole October; data exclude non-regular, temporary, contractual, absent due to different reasons (maternity, sabbatical, annual leave), part-time workers and others. Country: Slovakia Data on monthly earnings cover all economic activities (all NACE Rev.2 sections) Country: Slovenia In 2007 EURO was introduced instead of the national currency SIT. Country: Slovenia Change in definition (2003 onward): Data refer to full-time employees only. Country: Slovenia Provisional value (2014) Country: Spain Additional information (2000): The results have been obtained as annual average of quarterly data form a wage survey. The coverage are local units with 5 or more employees. Country: Spain From 2002-2003, the coverage is local units with 10 or more employees. Since 2004, coverage has been extended to all size units. ISCED-97 is used 2002-2010 and ISCED-11 in 2014. Country: Sweden Change in definition (2000 - 2013): The Data cover only employees and exlude irregular bonuses and gratuities. Country: Switzerland For monthly earnings, up to 2010 the data cover employees in private and public federal sectors. Since 2012, the data concern only the private sector. Country: Switzerland The underlying average earnings data exclude overtime pay and family allowances and refer to full-time equivalents. GPG figures computed from median earnings instead of averages. Country: Ukraine From 2014 data cover the territories under the government control. Country: Ukraine Up to 2009, the data do not cover small businesses, since 2010 the data include enterprises, institutions and organizations with 10 and more employees. Country: United Kingdom Monthly earnings are from the UK Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE) and defined as average gross weekly earnings for the reference period (Gpay), multiplied by 4.348. Earnings are of those over 15 only.
    • fevereiro 2019
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 06 março, 2019
      Selecionar Conjunto de dados
      Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international official sources. Definitions: Gender pay gap is the difference between men’s and women’s average earnings from employment, shown as a percentage of men’s average earnings.The UNECE gender statistics database presents two indicators on gender pay gap, which represent two different concerns of gender equality. Gender Pay Gap in hourly wage rates refers to the gender gap in average hourly earnings. This indicator aims to capture the difference between men’s and women’s overall position in the labor market. It measures the difference between men’s and women’s wage rates independent of the number of hours worked, the type of activity or the type of occupation. Gender Pay Gap in monthly earnings refers to the gender gap in average monthly earnings. This indicator aims to capture the variance between men’s and women’s earnings over a specific period of time. It reflects differences in time worked and type of work performed, which translates into gender differences in economic autonomy. Wage rates are earnings elements meant to be measured, as stipulated by the ILO Resolution concerning an integrated system of wages statistics (ILO, 1973), in relation to an appropriate time period such as the hour, day, week, month or other customary period used for purposes of determining the wage rates concerned. In the case of these statistics, the reference time period is the hour. Wage rates should include basic wages, cost-of-living allowances and other guaranteed and regularly paid allowances, but exclude overtime payments, bonuses and gratuities, family allowances and other social security payments made by employers. Ex gratia payments in kind, supplementary to normal wage rates, are also excluded. Earnings relate to remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as for annual vacation, other paid leave or holidays. Earnings include direct wages and salaries for the time worked, or work done, remuneration for time not worked, bonuses and gratuities and housing and family allowances paid by the employer directly to his employee. Earnings exclude employers’ contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security and pension schemes and also the benefits received by employees under these schemes. Earnings also exclude severance and termination pay. Gross earnings refer to total earnings before any deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes, life insurance premiums, union dues and other obligations of employees. Net earnings refer to pay allocated to the worker after deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes, life insurance premiums, union dues and other obligations of employees. Educational attainment is defined as the highest level successfully completed by the person, in the educational system of the country where the education was received. The levels of education are defined according to the ISCED 1997 General note: Data are compiled from gross earnings and cover paid employees in all categories of activities and workers in full time and part-time employment. Any deviations from these are specified in the subsequent notes, to the extent the information is available. Gender pay gap in hourly wage: For EU member countries, the data are compiled from hourly earnings available in Eurostat’s online database devired from the Structure of Earnings Surveys. Please refer to the EU Structure of Earnings Survey methods and their gender pay gap in unadjusted form for further explanations. For non-EU countries, the figures are compiled from hourly earnings data provided by the countries in response to the UNECE questionnaire. Gender pay gap in monthly earnings: Figures are compiled from monthly earnings data provided by the countries in response to the UNECE questionnaire and official earnings data available in Eurostat and ILO databases. See the note ’Method and data sources for the gender pay gap in the UNECE Statistical Database’ for more information. Country: Austria Gross monthly earnings refer to the monthly amount in the main job. It includes usual paid overtime, tips and commission but excludes income from investments, assets, savings, stocks and shares. Profit share and bonuses are taken into account. Supplement payments (13th, 14th month, holiday pay...) are not included as they are not surveyed in this question, but they could be modeld (average gross monthly earning per group x14/12) under the simplified assumption that people are employed for the whole year and all receive these benefits. Country: Austria ISCED-11 is used from survey year 2014 on, before that ISCED-97. Country: Belgium For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, underlying average earnings data are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Surveys. Country: Bulgaria Data cover employees only and are compiled from enterprise survey (four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey). Overtime payments are included in average earnings. Country: Bulgaria From 2014 the educational breakdown is according to the ISCED-11. Country: Canada For GPG in hourly earnings, data covers employees only, self-employed are excluded. Country: Cyprus Data are based on the results of the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) for years 2006 and 2010. Data for 2006 and 2010 have been revised to better reflect the definitions provided by UNECE.Hourly Wage Rate includes normal salary and regular bonuses paid to the employee (including payments for shift work). It excludes overtime payments, irregular bonuses and payments in kind.Monthly earnings include normal salary, regular bonuses paid to the employee (including payments for shift work) and payments for overtime. They exclude irregular bonuses and payments in kind.Coverage: Enterprises in all economic activities, excluding Agriculture, Fishing, Activities of Private Households and Extra-territorial Organisations. All enterprises covered had one or more employees. Self-employed are not covered.Geographical coverage: data refer to Government controlled areas only. Country: Czechia Reference period (2011 - 2012): For upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, data refer to ISCED 3 only (instead of 3-4), and fro tertiary education , data refer to ISCD 6 only (instead of 5-6). Country: Czechia Since 2011 all employees included in the sample surveys,including employees of enterprises with less than ten employees, employees of non-profit organizations, and also own-account workers that had not been measuredbefore. Country: Denmark For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, underlying average earnings data are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey. Country: Estonia For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, data exclude self-employed persons. From 2014, breakdown by education is according to ISCED-2011. Country: Finland The method of defining part/full-timers changed in 2001. Country: Finland Data do not include irregular bonuses, housing and family allowances. Average monthly earnings data cover only full-time employees. Country: France For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered in data up to 2009. From 2014 data include overseas departments. Country: Germany For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered. From 2014 breakdown by education compiled using ISCED-2011. Country: Greece For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2002 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data from 2006 on are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered. Country: Hungary Data include only full-time employees. B-S (-O), 10 employees or more Country: Israel Change in definition (2006 - 2012): Data cover both - paid employees and self-employed Country: Israel Change in definition (2006 - 2012): Data cover both - paid employees and self-employed Country: Italy For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys (SES). The difference with the SES definition is that the SES definition contains overtime earnings and hours. Due to methodological changes, the data for 2014 might be uncomparable with the previous years. For monthly earnings, data are compiled from households surveys (EU-SILC) from 2006 to 2009 and from SES from 2010 onwards. The main difference with the SES definition is that the SES definition refers to the month of october and excludes bonuses and other items not payable each month. Due to methodological changes, the data for 2014 might be uncomparable with the previous years. Country: Latvia Additional information (2002 onward): Data by education level are calculated for enterprises with number of employees 10 and more for NACE Rev.1.1 sections C-K (excluding L) on 2002 and 2006 and for NACE Rev.2 sections B-S (excluding O) on 2010 according to the methodology of structural indicator of European Comission Gender Pay Gap (GPG). Country: Latvia Data cover paid employees only. Part-timers earnings have been equivalised to fill-time units. All data exclude remuneration of kind. Country: Lithuania The gross earnings data on which GPG in monthly earnings are based exclude housing and family allowances. From 2014 data are compiled according to ISCED-2011. Country: Luxembourg For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, data are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Average monthly earnings are based on full-time equivalent employees, reference month is october. NACE B to S exclunding O Country: Malta For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered. Country: Norway Break in methodlogy (2005): Figures from 2005 for wages by level of education are not comparable with the figures for 2004 and earlier, due to changes in definitions. Country: Norway Change in definition (2000 onward): Data refer to full-time equivalent of paid employees only. Country: Poland Change in definition (2001 - 2004): Data cover employees only. Family allowances are not inclueded. Data refer to full-time employees only. Country: Poland Change in definition (2006 onward): Data cover employees only. Family allowances are not inclueded. Country: Portugal For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered. Country: Romania Data by education level are derived from the Structure of Earnings Survey and related to enterprises with 10+ employees. The underlying average monthly gross earnings refers to October. Country: Russian Federation Change in definition (2005 - 2013): Underlying Earnings data do not include end of year, seniority, bonus payments and other nonrecurrent payments . Data include employees worked whole October; data exclude non-regular, temporary, contractual, absent due to different reasons (maternity, sabbatical, annual leave), part-time workers and others. Country: Slovakia Additional information (2000 - 2012): The concept of Earnings in definitions, geographical coverage, reference period are in compliance with the request. Country: Slovenia Break in methodlogy (2007 - 2013): In 2007 EURO was introduced instead of the national currency SIT. Country: Slovenia Change in definition (2003 - 2013): Data refer to full-time employees only. Country: Slovenia Provisional value (2012): Country: Spain Additional information (2000): The results have been obtained as annual average of quarterly data form a wage survey. The coverage are local units with 5 or more employees. Country: Spain From 2002-2003, the coverage is local units with 10 or more employees. Since 2004, coverage has been extended to all size units. ISCED-97 is used 2002-2010 and ISCED-11 in 2014. Country: Sweden Change in definition (2000 onwards): The Data cover only employees and exlude irregular bonuses and gratuities. Country: Switzerland For monthly earnings, up to 2010 the data cover employees in private and public federal sectors. since 2012, the data concern only the private sector. Country: Switzerland The underlying average earnings data exclude overtime pay and family allowances and refer to full-time equivalents. GPG figures computed from median earnings instead of averages. Country: The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered
    • maio 2019
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 21 maio, 2019
      Selecionar Conjunto de dados
      Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (OECD, EUROSTAT, CIS) official sources. General note: The UNECE secretariat presents time series ready for immediate analysis. When appropriate, source segments with methodological differences have been linked or rescaled to build long consistent time series. Wages common currency (US$) estimates: are computed by the UNECE Secretariat using the nominal exchange rates. Gross average monthly wages cover total wages and salaries in cash and in kind, before any tax deduction and before social security contributions. They include wages and salaries, remuneration for time not worked, bonuses and gratuities paid by the employer to the employee. For most countries wages cover total economy and are expressed per full-time equivalent employee. This enables comparison of different countries irrespective of the length of working time and the share of part-time and full-time workers. Where data are not available in full-time units, it has been mentioned in the note for the corresponding country. In these cases, the wages are either expressed for full-time workers only or total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. In the case of three countries, wages do not cover total economy. Iceland collects wages for the private sector only. Serbia excludes services provided by households, and Turkey excludes agriculture, fishing and forestry as well as services provided by households. Three countries measure wages and salaries in cash only, excluding in kind remuneration. These are Bosnia and Herzegovina, Estonia and Iceland. .. - data not available Country: Albania Data for the years 1991-1996 only cover wages in the public sector. Data from 1997 includes earnings in public and private sector. The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. Country: Armenia The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. 1993 denomination of the Soviet ruble: 1 new Armenian dram = 200 old rubles. Data from 2012 and later include employers' statutory social security contributions. Country: Azerbaijan The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. 1993 denomination of the ruble: 1 new manat = 10 old rubles. 2006 redenomination of the ruble: 1 new manta = 5000 old rubles. Country: Belarus The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. 1994 denomination of the Belarusian ruble: 1 new ruble = 10 old rubles. 2000 redenomination of the ruble: 1 new ruble = 1000 old rubles. Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina The wages include remuneration in cash only, not in kind, and the total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. Country: Bulgaria 1999 denomination of the Bulgarian leva: 1 new Bulgarian leva = 1000 old leva. Country: Croatia The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. Free lancers and craft workers are not included. 1994 denomination of the Croat dinar: 1 new Croatian Kuna = 1000 dinars. Country: Cyprus Data refer to full-time workers only. 2008: Euro has become the legal tender currency. Country: Estonia The total wages include remuneration in cash only, not in kind. Estonian currency from 1st January 2011 is euro, prior to 2011 - Estonian kroon (EEK), 1992 denomination of the Soviet ruble: 1 new kroon = 10 old rubles. Country: Georgia The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. 1995 denomination of the lari-kupon: 1 new Georgian Lari = 1000000 old lari-kupon. Country: Iceland Data refer to full-time workers in the private sector only including manufacturing, construction, trade and transport. The wages include remuneration in cash only, not in kind. Country: Israel Data refer to average monthly wages per employee job total, including territories and foreigners. The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. Country: Kazakhstan The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. 1992 denomination of the Soviet ruble: 1 new Kazakh tenge = 500 old rubles. Country: Kyrgyzstan The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. 1993 denomination of the Soviet ruble: 1 new Kyrgyz = 200 old rubles. Data for 1990-2006 includes the value of housing. Country: Latvia 2014: Euro has become the legal tender currency. 1992 denomination of the Latvian rubble: 1 new Latvian lat = 200 old Latvian talonas. Country: Lithuania 2015: Euro has become the legal tender currency. 1993 denomination of the Soviet ruble: 1 new litas = 100 old rubles. Country: Luxembourg 2008: Euro has become the legal tender currency. Country: Moldova, Republic of The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. 1993 denomination of the cupon: 1 new leu = 1000 old cupon. Country: Montenegro The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. Country: Poland 1995 denomination of the Polish zloty: 1 new zloty = 10000 old zloty. Country: Romania 1991 denomination of the Lei: 1 new Leu = 10 000 old Lei. 2005 redenomination of the Leu: 1 New Leu = 10000 old Leu. Country: Russian Federation The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. 1998 denomination of the Russian ruble: 1 new ruble = 1000 old rubles. Data for Russian Federation was updated only until the end of 2013. Country: Serbia 1999 excludes Kosovo and Metohija. The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. Wages in services provided by households are not included, covers economic activities A-O (ISIC Rev.3). Country: Slovakia 2009: Euro has become the legal tender currency. Country: Tajikistan The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. 2000 denomination of the Tajik ruble: 1 new Tajik somoni = 1000 old rubles. Country: The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. Data before 1999 only include payment in cash. 1992 denomination of the Yugoslav dinar: 1 new Macedonian denar = 1 old Yugoslav dinar. 1993 redenomination of the Macedonian denar: 1 new Macedonian denar = 100 old Macedonian denar. Country: Turkey Turkey does not produce these data annually. Since 2008, the wages and salaries in education, heath and social work as well as in other community, social and personal services were included in the data. The data exclude agriculture, fishing and forestry as well as services provided by households. The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. 1995 denomination of the Lira: 1 New Turkish lira = one million old lira. Country: Turkmenistan 1993 denomination of the Soviet ruble: 1 Turkmen Manat = 500 Soviet rubles. 2009 redenomination of the Turkmen manat: 1 New Turkman Manat = 5000 old Turkman Manat. Country: Ukraine The total wages are divided by the number of all employees including both full-time and part-time workers. 1996 denomination of the Karbovanets: 1 new Ukrainian hryvnia = 100000 old Karbovanets. Country: Uzbekistan 1993 denomination of the Soviet ruble: 1 new Uzbekistan sum = 1000 old ruble.