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United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

UNECE's major aim is to promote pan-European economic integration. UNECE includes 56 member States in Europe, North America and Asia. However, all interested United Nations member States may participate in the work of UNECE. Over 70 international professional organizations and other non-governmental organizations take part in UNECE activities.

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  • E
    • maio 2019
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 07 maio, 2019
      Selecionar Conjunto de dados
      Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national official sources. Definition:Educational attainment is defined as the highest level successfully completed by the person, in the educational system of the country where the education was received. The levels of education are defined according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED): - Primary: ISCED level 1 - Lower secondary: ISCED level 2 - Upper and post secondary non-tertiary: ISCED levels 3-4 - Tertiary: ISCED 1997 levels 5-6 or ISCED 2011 levels 5-8. In this table the upper secondary level includes post-secondary non-tertiary education. For most countries the transition from ISCED 1997 to ISCED 2011 is from the scool year 2013-2014. For more details see Country Footnotes. .. - data not available Country: Armenia Change in definition (1980 - 1990): Level of education ?not stated? includes population without education attainment. Country: Armenia Reference period (1980): Data refer to 1979 Country: Armenia Reference period (1990): Data refer to 1989 Country: Austria Break in methodology (2004): In 2014 a new weighting procedure for the LFS was introduced. Following this change in the weighting procedure, data was revised back to 2004. Country: Austria ISCED-11 (2014 onwards): Break in series due to the reclassification of a programme spanning levels: the qualification acquired upon successful completion of higher technical and vocational colleges is allocated in ISCED 2011 to ISCED level 5; under ISCED 1997 the same qualification was reported on ISCED level 4, but earmarked as equivalent to tertiary education Country: Austria Change in definition (1980 - 2000): Data before 2000 do not comply with ISCED97 as regards distinction between upper secondary and tertiary. ISCED97 5B mainly included in Upper Secondary. Country: Austria Change in definition (2004 - 2015): Data include ISCED Level 3c short in lower secondary level. Country: Azerbaijan Reference period (1980 - 2013): Data refer to end of year. Country: Belarus Additional information (1990 - 2013): Total includes population without education. Country: Belarus Break in methodlogy (1990): Data refer to 1989 census Country: Belarus Break in methodlogy (2000): Data refer to 1999 census Country: Belgium 2010: break in series: change in methodology. Measurement: Persons , Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina Population by educational attainment, educational level not stated refers to the population with no primary schooling and some primary. Country: Bulgaria Break in methodlogy (1980): Data are from 1985 census Country: Bulgaria Break in methodlogy (1990): Data are from 1992 census Country: Bulgaria Break in methodlogy (2001): Data are from 2001 census Country: Bulgaria Reference period (1995 - 2002): Data refer to June of respective year Country: Canada Additional information (1990 - onwards): Data cover non-institutionalized population in the 10 provinces, i.e. excluding the three Territories. Country: Croatia Change in definition (1980 - 1990): Data refer to population with permanent residence irrespective of actual residence and duration. "Education level-not stated" comprises persons with unknown education level as well as persons with no school at all. Country: Croatia Change in definition (2001 - 2013): "Education level-not stated" comprises persons with unknown education level as well as persons with no school at all. Country: Croatia Reference period (1980): Data refer to 1981 Country: Croatia Reference period (1990): Data refer to 1991 Country: Cyprus Change in definition (1990): Lower secondary level is included in upper secondary level Country: Cyprus Reference period (1990): Data refer to 1989 Country: Cyprus Reference period (1995): Data refer to 1992 Country: Cyprus Data cover only government controlled area Country: Cyprus From 2014, data compiled using ISCED 2011 classification. Country: Cyprus From 2000, persons who have not attended or finished primary education also included in primary education level. Country: Estonia Change in definition (1980 - 2000): Data are from censuses and refer to population aged 25+ Data for primary level attainment include persons who have not completed the primary level education. Country: Estonia Change in definition (2001 - 2013): Age group 25+ refers to 25-74, age group 50+ refers to 50-74. Data for primary level attainment include persons who have not completed the primary level education. Country: Estonia Change in definition (2012): Data is from census 2011. Data refer to 31.december 2011 Data for primary level attainment include persons who have not completed the primary level education. Country: Estonia Reference period (1980): Data refer to 1979 Country: Estonia Reference period (1990): Data refer to 1989 Country: Finland Data for lower secondary level include primary level. Country: Georgia Change in definition (1980 - 2013): Level of education ?not stated? includes population without education attainment Country: Georgia Reference period (1980): Data refer to 1979 Country: Georgia Reference period (1990): Data refer to 1989 Country: Germany Data from 1990 to 1998 are classified according to ISCED-76, data from 1999 to 2013 according to ISCED 97, data from 2014 on are classified according to ISCED 2011. Country: Greece Break in methodology (2000): From 2000, data refer to population residing in private households Country: Greece Change in definition (2001 - 2013): "Primary" includes also persons that did not completed ISCED 1 programs Country: Greece Data refer to annual averages. From 2014, estimates use ISCED-2011 classification. Country: Hungary Break in methodlogy (1995): Before 1995, data are from population censuses. From 2000, from Country: Hungary Change in definition (2000 - 2008): Data refer to population aged 25-74. Country: Iceland Break in methodology (2003): Change in data collection procedure. Data classified according to ISCED 2011. Country: Iceland Reference period (1990): 1990 refers to 1991 Country: Ireland From 2000, data refer to age group 25-64. From 2014, data are compiled according to ISCED-2011. As a result data breakdown by education level not fully comparable with previous years. Country: Ireland Reference period (1980): Data refer to1981 Country: Ireland Reference period (1990): Data refer to 1991 Country: Ireland Reference period (1995): Data refer to 1996 Country: Israel Break in methodlogy (2001): Changes in the weighting method. Country: Israel Break in methodlogy (2009): Transition to the 2008 Population Census estimates. Country: Israel Break in methodlogy (2012): Transitiom from a quarterly to a monthly LFS. Country: Israel From 2012, using ISCED-2011. Totals include population by educational attainment, pre-primary. Country: Italy Break in methodology (2004): Change in data collection procedure. From 2014, data classified by ISCED 2011. Country: Italy Change in definition (1980 - 1990): Data for primary level attainment include persons who have not completed the primary level education Country: Kyrgyzstan Break in methodlogy (2000): Data refer to 1999 Census Country: Kyrgyzstan Break in methodlogy (2009): Data refer to 2009 Census Country: Kyrgyzstan Reference period (1990): Data refer to 1989 Census Country: Latvia Change in definition (1995 - 2001): Population aged 15+. Data for primary level refers to level 0 and 1 of ISCED 1997 classification. Country: Latvia Change in definition (2002 onward): Population 15-74 age group. For 2002-2013, data for primary level refers to level 0 and 1 of ISCED 1997 classification. From 2014, data for primary level refers to level 0 and 1 of ISCED 2011 classification. Country: Latvia Reference period (1995): Data refer to 1996 Country: Luxembourg Additional information (1990 - onwards): Data for age group 25+ refer to 25-74. Country: Luxembourg Break in methodlogy (2003): Switch from a face-to-face to a telephone survey Country: Luxembourg Break in methodlogy (2009): Random Digit Dialing has replaced the register-based sampling Country: Luxembourg Change in definition (1990 - 2012): The categroy `Lower secodnary` also includes persons who have at most attained the primary level Country: Luxembourg Reference period (1990): Data refer to 1992 Country: Malta Some data not shown due to lack of reliability. Country: Moldova, Republic of Territorial change (2000 onward): Data exclude the territory of the Transnistria and municipality of Bender Country: Netherlands Since 2003, ''Primary'' includes also ISCED level 0 (persons who have not successfully completed ISCED 1 programs). Country: Norway Break in methodology (2007): As of 2007, the results of a survey on education completed abroad before immigration to Norway is included. As a result , the proportion of & 39;educational level not stated& 39; was reduced. All data compiled according ISCED 2011. Country: Poland Change in definition (1990 - 2002): Upper secondary level includes lower secondary level. Country: Poland Reference period (1990): Data refer to 1988 Country: Portugal Data from 2011 onwards are not directly comparable with data for the previous years due to new data collection methods used in the Portuguese Labour Force Survey series. Data from 2014 onward are compiled according to ISCED-2011. Data for ''educational level not stated'' refer to individuals who have not successfully completed ISCED level 1. Country: Romania Break in methodology (2002): Data series of 2002-2012 are not perfectly comparable with data series of previous years. For years 2014 onward data were estimated using the resident population. For year 2013 data were estimated based on revised population figures (resident population) in accordance to the 2011 Census results. Starting with year 2014 educational attainment collected according to ISCED 2011. Educational level not stated includes persons without any formal education graduated. Country: Serbia Data for education level not stated include population without education attainment. Country: Slovakia Change in definition (1995): data for total of education levels include only secondary and tertiary levels. Country: Slovakia Change in definition (2001 - 2011): data on primary education according to ISCED 97, level 1 is not available Country: Slovenia From 2014 data are compiled according to ISCED-2011 and persons with ISCED level 0 are excluded. Country: Spain Data are annual averages of the four quarters of the year. From 2014 data are compiled according to ISCED-2011 Country: Sweden Break in methodlogy (2002): Quality improvement and change in classification from ISCED 1976 to ISCED 1997. Country: Sweden Change in definition (1990 - 2013): Data refer to population aged 25-74 Country: Switzerland Break in methodlogy (2010): Major changes in data collection procedures (quaterly data instead of annual data). Country: Switzerland Change in definition (1990 - 2001): Lower sedondary education includes primary education Country: Switzerland Change in definition (2002): Change in definition of educational attainment levels Country: Switzerland Reference period (1990): Data refer to 1991 Country: Switzerland Since 2014, data are compiled according to ISCED-2011 Country: United States Change in definition (1980): Primary refers to grades 5-8, Lower Secondary refers to grade 9 in High School, no diploma, Upper Secondary refers to High School, college graduate, Tertiary refers to people who have completed Associate& 39;s degree through Doctorate degree, Not stated refers to people who didn& 39;t complete any schooling through 4th grade. Data based on completed schooling years. Country: United States Change in definition (1990 - 2015): Primary refers to grades 5-8, Lower Secondary refers to grade 9 in High School, no diploma, Upper Secondary refers to High School, college graduate, Tertiary refers to people who have completed Associate`s degree through Doctorate degree, Not stated refers to people who did not complete any schooling through 4th grade. Data based on degrees.
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 22 abril, 2019
      Selecionar Conjunto de dados
      UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (UNESCO Institute for Statistics) official sources. The net enrollment ratio is the number of students of the official school-age group (defined by each country) enrolled in secondary-level education per 100 persons of the same age group. The gross enrollment ratio is the number of students enrolled in secondary level education (regardless of their age) per 100 persons of the official school-age group corresponding to secondary-level education. The secondary level consists of lower and upper secondary levels of ISCED 2011. .. - data not availableMeasurement: Gross enrollment ratio , Country: ArmeniaSince the school year 2013-2014, the data have been compiled according ISCED 2011.Country: AustriaChange in definition (1995 - 2012): NER: data include ISCED level 4 programmes and refer to official school age group assumed to be 10-17 years.Country: AustriaBreak in series (2013): From school year 2013-2014 onwards use of ISCED 2011.Country: BulgariaNER data refer to students aged 11-20 and include a small number of ISCED level 4 students aged 19 to 20.Country: CroatiaNER data refer to students aged 11-18.Country: CyprusData cover only government controlled area. Data refer to level 3 of ISCED 1997 only. 1980/1981, 1990/1991, 1995/1996: data refer to ISCED 1976 classification. 2000/2001: data refer to 1999/2000.Country: CzechiaChange in definition (1995 - 2012): Data refer to full-time study only and exclude part-time studyCountry: EstoniaNER data refer to students aged 13-17.Country: Finland 1990/1991: data refer to ISCED 1976 classification.Country: GeorgiaData refer to beginning of the school year.Country: Germany Data cover the territory of Germany after reunification. 1980/1981, 1990/1991, 1995/1996: data refer to ISCED 1976 classification. For school years 2000/2001 - 2013/2014: data refer to ISCED 1997 classification. Data on students refer to beginning of the school year and data on population refer to beginning of the calendar year.Country: Hungary2000/2001: data refer to 1999/2000. NER data refer to students aged 14-17. Data refer to levels 3 and 4 of ISCED classification.Country: Iceland1980/1981-1995/1996: data refer to ISCED 1976 classification.Country: Ireland 1995/1996: data refer to ISCED 1976 classification. From 2000/2001: data refer to levels 2,3 and 4 of ISCED 1997 classification. Data refer to students aged 11-19.Country: IsraelData refer to level 3 of ISCED classification. 2000/2001: data exclude students registered in Ministry of Religious Affairs.Country: ItalyData refer to level 3 of ISCED classification and refer to the school year.Country: LatviaBreak in methodology (2006): Changes in national education classification. Started from school year 2006/2007 level 2 includes grades 1-6, level 3 includes grades 7-12.Country: LithuaniaData refer to 1 January of the school year. NER data refer to students aged 11-18.Country: Moldova, Republic ofAdditional information (2006 - 2012): Stable population used during the enrollment rates calculation, because the actual population does not reflect the real situation of migration.Country: Moldova, Republic ofChange in definition (1990 - 2005): Data refer to age group 11-17 years.Country: Moldova, Republic ofChange in definition (2006 - 2012): Data refer to age group 11-18 years.Country: MontenegroData refer to level 3 of ISCED classification.Country: Netherlands1990/1991: data do not include special secondary education.Country: PolandData refer to level 3 of ISCED 1997.Country: RomaniaData refer to 1 July of the school year.Country: SerbiaTerritorial change (2003 - 2012): The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia has no available data on the AP Kosovo and Metohija.Country: SloveniaData refer to 15 September of the school year.Country: Spain2000/2001: data refer to 1999/2000. 1990/1991: NER data refer to students aged 11-18. From 1995: NER data refer to students aged 12-18. Data refer to October - September of the school year.Country: The former Yugoslav Republic of MacedoniaBreak in methodology (2010): From 2010/2011 implementation of the Law on Primary and Lower Secondary educationCountry: TurkeyChange in definition (2000 onwards): From 1997/1998: compulsory education was expanded to 8 years by law.
  • G
    • fevereiro 2019
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 06 março, 2019
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      Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international official sources. Definitions: Gender pay gap is the difference between men’s and women’s average earnings from employment, shown as a percentage of men’s average earnings.The UNECE gender statistics database presents two indicators on gender pay gap, which represent two different concerns of gender equality. Gender Pay Gap in hourly wage rates refers to the gender gap in average hourly earnings. This indicator aims to capture the difference between men’s and women’s overall position in the labor market. It measures the difference between men’s and women’s wage rates independent of the number of hours worked, the type of activity or the type of occupation. Gender Pay Gap in monthly earnings refers to the gender gap in average monthly earnings. This indicator aims to capture the variance between men’s and women’s earnings over a specific period of time. It reflects differences in time worked and type of work performed, which translates into gender differences in economic autonomy. Wage rates are earnings elements meant to be measured, as stipulated by the ILO Resolution concerning an integrated system of wages statistics (ILO, 1973), in relation to an appropriate time period such as the hour, day, week, month or other customary period used for purposes of determining the wage rates concerned. In the case of these statistics, the reference time period is the hour. Wage rates should include basic wages, cost-of-living allowances and other guaranteed and regularly paid allowances, but exclude overtime payments, bonuses and gratuities, family allowances and other social security payments made by employers. Ex gratia payments in kind, supplementary to normal wage rates, are also excluded. Earnings relate to remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as for annual vacation, other paid leave or holidays. Earnings include direct wages and salaries for the time worked, or work done, remuneration for time not worked, bonuses and gratuities and housing and family allowances paid by the employer directly to his employee. Earnings exclude employers’ contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security and pension schemes and also the benefits received by employees under these schemes. Earnings also exclude severance and termination pay. Gross earnings refer to total earnings before any deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes, life insurance premiums, union dues and other obligations of employees. Net earnings refer to pay allocated to the worker after deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes, life insurance premiums, union dues and other obligations of employees. Educational attainment is defined as the highest level successfully completed by the person, in the educational system of the country where the education was received. The levels of education are defined according to the ISCED 1997 General note: Data are compiled from gross earnings and cover paid employees in all categories of activities and workers in full time and part-time employment. Any deviations from these are specified in the subsequent notes, to the extent the information is available. Gender pay gap in hourly wage: For EU member countries, the data are compiled from hourly earnings available in Eurostat’s online database devired from the Structure of Earnings Surveys. Please refer to the EU Structure of Earnings Survey methods and their gender pay gap in unadjusted form for further explanations. For non-EU countries, the figures are compiled from hourly earnings data provided by the countries in response to the UNECE questionnaire. Gender pay gap in monthly earnings: Figures are compiled from monthly earnings data provided by the countries in response to the UNECE questionnaire and official earnings data available in Eurostat and ILO databases. See the note ’Method and data sources for the gender pay gap in the UNECE Statistical Database’ for more information. Country: Austria Gross monthly earnings refer to the monthly amount in the main job. It includes usual paid overtime, tips and commission but excludes income from investments, assets, savings, stocks and shares. Profit share and bonuses are taken into account. Supplement payments (13th, 14th month, holiday pay...) are not included as they are not surveyed in this question, but they could be modeld (average gross monthly earning per group x14/12) under the simplified assumption that people are employed for the whole year and all receive these benefits. Country: Austria ISCED-11 is used from survey year 2014 on, before that ISCED-97. Country: Belgium For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, underlying average earnings data are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Surveys. Country: Bulgaria Data cover employees only and are compiled from enterprise survey (four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey). Overtime payments are included in average earnings. Country: Bulgaria From 2014 the educational breakdown is according to the ISCED-11. Country: Canada For GPG in hourly earnings, data covers employees only, self-employed are excluded. Country: Cyprus Data are based on the results of the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) for years 2006 and 2010. Data for 2006 and 2010 have been revised to better reflect the definitions provided by UNECE.Hourly Wage Rate includes normal salary and regular bonuses paid to the employee (including payments for shift work). It excludes overtime payments, irregular bonuses and payments in kind.Monthly earnings include normal salary, regular bonuses paid to the employee (including payments for shift work) and payments for overtime. They exclude irregular bonuses and payments in kind.Coverage: Enterprises in all economic activities, excluding Agriculture, Fishing, Activities of Private Households and Extra-territorial Organisations. All enterprises covered had one or more employees. Self-employed are not covered.Geographical coverage: data refer to Government controlled areas only. Country: Czechia Reference period (2011 - 2012): For upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, data refer to ISCED 3 only (instead of 3-4), and fro tertiary education , data refer to ISCD 6 only (instead of 5-6). Country: Czechia Since 2011 all employees included in the sample surveys,including employees of enterprises with less than ten employees, employees of non-profit organizations, and also own-account workers that had not been measuredbefore. Country: Denmark For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, underlying average earnings data are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey. Country: Estonia For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, data exclude self-employed persons. From 2014, breakdown by education is according to ISCED-2011. Country: Finland The method of defining part/full-timers changed in 2001. Country: Finland Data do not include irregular bonuses, housing and family allowances. Average monthly earnings data cover only full-time employees. Country: France For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered in data up to 2009. From 2014 data include overseas departments. Country: Germany For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered. From 2014 breakdown by education compiled using ISCED-2011. Country: Greece For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2002 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data from 2006 on are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered. Country: Hungary Data include only full-time employees. B-S (-O), 10 employees or more Country: Israel Change in definition (2006 - 2012): Data cover both - paid employees and self-employed Country: Israel Change in definition (2006 - 2012): Data cover both - paid employees and self-employed Country: Italy For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys (SES). The difference with the SES definition is that the SES definition contains overtime earnings and hours. Due to methodological changes, the data for 2014 might be uncomparable with the previous years. For monthly earnings, data are compiled from households surveys (EU-SILC) from 2006 to 2009 and from SES from 2010 onwards. The main difference with the SES definition is that the SES definition refers to the month of october and excludes bonuses and other items not payable each month. Due to methodological changes, the data for 2014 might be uncomparable with the previous years. Country: Latvia Additional information (2002 onward): Data by education level are calculated for enterprises with number of employees 10 and more for NACE Rev.1.1 sections C-K (excluding L) on 2002 and 2006 and for NACE Rev.2 sections B-S (excluding O) on 2010 according to the methodology of structural indicator of European Comission Gender Pay Gap (GPG). Country: Latvia Data cover paid employees only. Part-timers earnings have been equivalised to fill-time units. All data exclude remuneration of kind. Country: Lithuania The gross earnings data on which GPG in monthly earnings are based exclude housing and family allowances. From 2014 data are compiled according to ISCED-2011. Country: Luxembourg For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, data are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Average monthly earnings are based on full-time equivalent employees, reference month is october. NACE B to S exclunding O Country: Malta For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered. Country: Norway Break in methodlogy (2005): Figures from 2005 for wages by level of education are not comparable with the figures for 2004 and earlier, due to changes in definitions. Country: Norway Change in definition (2000 onward): Data refer to full-time equivalent of paid employees only. Country: Poland Change in definition (2001 - 2004): Data cover employees only. Family allowances are not inclueded. Data refer to full-time employees only. Country: Poland Change in definition (2006 onward): Data cover employees only. Family allowances are not inclueded. Country: Portugal For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources. For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered. Country: Romania Data by education level are derived from the Structure of Earnings Survey and related to enterprises with 10+ employees. The underlying average monthly gross earnings refers to October. Country: Russian Federation Change in definition (2005 - 2013): Underlying Earnings data do not include end of year, seniority, bonus payments and other nonrecurrent payments . Data include employees worked whole October; data exclude non-regular, temporary, contractual, absent due to different reasons (maternity, sabbatical, annual leave), part-time workers and others. Country: Slovakia Additional information (2000 - 2012): The concept of Earnings in definitions, geographical coverage, reference period are in compliance with the request. Country: Slovenia Break in methodlogy (2007 - 2013): In 2007 EURO was introduced instead of the national currency SIT. Country: Slovenia Change in definition (2003 - 2013): Data refer to full-time employees only. Country: Slovenia Provisional value (2012): Country: Spain Additional information (2000): The results have been obtained as annual average of quarterly data form a wage survey. The coverage are local units with 5 or more employees. Country: Spain From 2002-2003, the coverage is local units with 10 or more employees. Since 2004, coverage has been extended to all size units. ISCED-97 is used 2002-2010 and ISCED-11 in 2014. Country: Sweden Change in definition (2000 onwards): The Data cover only employees and exlude irregular bonuses and gratuities. Country: Switzerland For monthly earnings, up to 2010 the data cover employees in private and public federal sectors. since 2012, the data concern only the private sector. Country: Switzerland The underlying average earnings data exclude overtime pay and family allowances and refer to full-time equivalents. GPG figures computed from median earnings instead of averages. Country: The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered
    • novembro 2019
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 28 novembro, 2019
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      Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (Eurostat and OECD) official sources. Definition: Graduates from an ISCED level are individuals who entered and successfully completed an education programme which is classified as ‘level completion’. A new version of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 2011) was adopted in 2011 by experts on Education Statistics. According to ISCED-11, the graduates refer to those who successfully completed levels 6, 7 or 8 of tertiary education. Programmes at ISCED-11 level 6, or Bachelor’s or equivalent level, are often designed to provide participants with intermediate academic and/or professional knowledge, skills and competencies, leading to a first university degree or equivalent qualification. Programmes at ISCED-11 level 7, or Master’s or equivalent level, provide participants with advanced academic and/or professional knowledge, skills and competencies, leading to a second degree or equivalent qualification. Such programmes may have a substantial research component but do not yet lead to the award of an advanced research qualification. Level 8 in ISCED-11, or doctoral or equivalent level, is reserved for tertiary programmes leading to the award of an advanced research qualification. According to ISCED-97 (previously in use), the ‘level completion’ programmes include levels 5A and 6. ISCED-97 level 5A corresponds to tertiary programmes that are largely theoretically based and are intended to provide sufficient qualifications for gaining entry into advanced research programmes and professions with high skill requirements. However, these programmes do not necessary distinguish between a first and second academic degree. Level 6 in ISCED-97 corresponds to level 8 in ISCED-11. For most countries the data on graduates in this table are shown according to ISCED-97 up to 2012 and according to ISCED-11 from 2013. However, for some countries the data were recalculated by the National Statistical Organizations according to ISCED-11 for earlier periods and provided both for ISCED-11 and ISCED-97 . In these particular cases, the sum of graduates at ISCED-11 levels 6 and 7 equals graduates at ISCED-97 level 5A, and, to avoid duplication, the data for every year are shown according to ISCED-11 only. Differences between ISCED-11 and ISCED-97 may affect time series data for some countries and result in breaks in series. With some exceptions, data on graduates refer to the calendar year. General note:The joint UOE (UNESCO-UIS, OECD, EUROSTAT) 2005 data collection on graduates by fields of education and training was changed to include graduates who were awarded more than one degree in different fields (not within the same field). In previous years, these graduates were reported only once and pro-rated over the fields. This change affected data in very few countries as multiple graduations in different fields for the same reference year are negligible in most countries. .. - data not available Country: Albania Advanced research programmes do not exist. Country: Armenia The transition to ISCED-2011 is from 2013-2014 school year. From 2012 backwards, the data have been recalculated by the NSO based on ISCED-2011. Country: Bulgaria Break in methodlogy (2000): Since 1997 the three-cycle degree structure (bachelor ? master ? doctoral) has been adopted following the Bologna process (due to changes in the national legislation) Country: Bulgaria Break in methodlogy (2007): The programs for training of medical nurses and maternity nurses have completed with qualification degree & 39;Bachelor& 39; since 2007 (due to changes in the national legislation). Medical nurses and maternity nurses education has moved from ISCED 5B to ISCED 5A since 2006. Country: Canada Reference period (1995 - 2013): Data refer to calendar year. e.g. data for graduates 2004-2005 refer to calendar year 2005. Country: Croatia Data refer to calendar year. Country: Cyprus Data cover only government controlled area. Country: Czechia 1980, 1990, 1995: data refer to graduates of full-time attendance only. Country: Estonia Up to 1990: advanced research programmes were not included in regular education. Country: Georgia Break in methodlogy (2010): Change in source Country: Georgia Territorial change (1980 onward): Data do not cover Abkhazia AR and Tskhinvali Region. Country: Germany 1980-1995: data refer to ISCED 1976 classification. 1980-1990: data refer to the former Federal Republic of Germany. From 1995: data refer to the territory of Germany after reunification. Country: Hungary Change in definition (1980 - 2000): data refer to ISCED 1976 classification Country: Iceland 2001-2005: data refer to calender year. Country: Kyrgyzstan Change in definition (1995 - onwards): Data refer to state and non-state educational institutions. Country: Kyrgyzstan Reference period (2000 - 2012): Data refer to the beginning of academic year. Country: Kyrgyzstan Reference period (2013): Since 2013 data refer to the end of an academic year. Country: Latvia 1990, 1995: data refer to ISCED 1976 classification. Country: Lithuania Data refer to calendar year. Country: Luxembourg Data refer to population aged 25-64. Country: Moldova, Republic of As of 2005/2006 school year, higher education, except medical and pharmaceutical, is carried out in two cycles (Licentiate and Master‘s). Students downcast to 2005/2006 academic year completed training on the rules according to the Bologna Declaration. In number of the graduates at the level 5A in 2008 includes those who received a diploma of higher education (before the adoption of the Bologna Declaration) and licentiate degree, and in 2010 and those who got master‘s diploma. Before 2009 data excluded foreigners. From 2012/2013 data are classified according to ISCED-2011. Country: Moldova, Republic of Data exclude the territory of the Transnistria and municipality of Bender Country: Romania Data are not available for advanced research programmes. Country: Serbia The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia has no available data on the AP Kosovo and Metohija. Country: Slovakia 1995: data do not refer to ISCED 1997 classification. Country: Slovenia Data refer to calendar year. Country: Spain 2005: Provisional data Country: Sweden 1995: data refer to ISCED 1976 classification. Country: Switzerland Break in methodlogy (2005): Break in series due to the growth in some fields of studies for women such as teacher training or health in Universities of Applied Sciences. Country: Switzerland Reference period (1995): Data refer to 1997 Country: Tajikistan Reference period (2000 - 2013): Data for advanced research programmes refer to end of year. Data for theoretical oriented programmes refer to June-July of reporting year. Country: Turkey Change in definition (1990 onwards): Data for theoretical oriented programmes include open education graduates. Data for advanced research programmes include medical interns and doctorate students. Country: Turkey Reference period (1990 onwards): Data refer to end of year. Country: Ukraine From 2014 data cover the territories under the government control. Country: Ukraine Data with year T in the headings refers to the beginning of the school year T/T+1. Transition from ISCED-1997 to ISCED-2011 since the school year 2012/2013.
  • H
    • abril 2019
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 16 abril, 2019
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      Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national official sources Definition: A university is an institution of higher education providing facilities for learning (and usually research) and authorised to grant academic degrees. Their main focus should be on ISCED 1997 level 5A or ISCED 2011 levels 6 and 7 programmes. .. - data not available Country: Albania Change in definition (2012): Data refers to personel only in public University Country: Cyprus Reference period (2008): data refer to 2009 Country: Cyprus Territorial change (1990 onward): Government controlled area only. Country: Denmark Reference period (2011): Data refer to January 2012. Country: Georgia Change in definition (2000 onward): Data refer to institutions accredited by the Ministry of Education and Science. Country: Georgia Territorial change (2000 onward): Data do not cover Abkhazia AR and Tskhinvali Region. Country: Latvia Reference period (2008): Data refer to 2009. Country: Moldova, Republic of Additional information (1995 onward): Data exclude the territory of the Transnistria and municipality of Bender Country: Portugal Additional information (2013): The changes relate to the merger of two public universities located in Lisbon, thus passing from 16 to 15 members. Country: Slovakia 2015 data refer to 20 November 2015. Country: Slovenia Break in methodology (2012): The number includes heads of all public and private higher education institutions. Country: Spain Break in methodlogy (2013): The data are provided to the Women& 39;s Institute in 2014 by the Rector& 39;s Conference of the Spanish Universities Country: Switzerland Break in methodlogy (2008): Data before 2008 refers to universityies only . As of 2008 data include universities and universities of applied sciences that cover the entire ISCED-97, level 5A/ISCED-11, level 7.
  • P
    • abril 2018
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 21 novembro, 2018
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      .. - data not available Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (Eurostat) official sources. Definition: Life-long learning data are shares of persons aged 25 to 64 who answered they received education or training in the four weeks preceding the survey. The denominator consists of the total population of the same age group, excluding no responses to the question ‘participation to education and training’. The numerator is formed by those persons who reported ‘participation in regular education’ and/or ‘participation in other taught activities’, while self learning activities are not included. General note: For most countries, data come from Labour Force Survey (LFS). Data for 2012: estimates. Country: Armenia Change in definition (2004 - 2007): Data exclude trainings Country: Armenia Change in definition (2008): Data exclude trainings Data refer to all ages Country: Armenia Reference period (2004): Data refer to period April 2004 to March 2005 Country: Israel Break in methodlogy (2009): Transition to the 2008 Population Census estimates. Country: Israel Break in methodlogy (2012): Transitiom from a quarterly to a monthly LFS. Country: Israel Change in definition (2007 - 2013): Data refer to present participation in education and not specifically to four weeks preceding the survey. Country: Moldova, Republic of Data exclude the territory of the Transnistria and municipality of Bender Country: Serbia Data do not cover Kosovo and Metohija. Break in series starting in 2014. Data not comparable with previous years. Country: Ukraine From 2014 data cover the territories under the government control. Country: United States Change in definition (1995 - 2015): Data refer to civilian, non-institutionalized population. Data include adults enrolled in regular school (i.e., schooling that may advance a person toward an elementary or high school diploma, a college, university, or professional school degree) or taking business, vocational, technical, secretarial, trade, or correspondence courses in the month of October.
  • T
    • novembro 2019
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 28 novembro, 2019
      Selecionar Conjunto de dados
      Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (Eurostat and UNESCO Institute for Statistics) official sources. Definition:Teaching professionals teach the theory and practice of one or more disciplines at different educational levels, conduct research and improve or develop concepts, theories and operational methods pertaining to their particular discipline, and prepare scholarly papers and books. The number of teachers is disaggregated according to education levels of enrolment. From the academic year 2012-2013, for most countries in this table education levels are classified using the ISCED 2011 (previously ISCED 1997). Primary education corresponds to ISCED 2011 level 1, secondary education corresponds to levels 2, 3 and 4 and tertiary education corresponds to levels 5-8. In ISCED 2011 some programmes are classified at different levels than before. Such differences may affect time series data for some countries. For correspondance between ISCED 1997 and ISCED 2011 see here. .. - data not available Country: Albania Change in definition (1980 - 2008): Before 2007-2008, data on teachers in primary education refer to primary and lower secondary education and data on teachers in secondary education refer to teachers in upper secondary education only. Country: Armenia 2000: break in series; data include both public and private schools. Transition to ISCED-2011 is from the school year 2013-2014. Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina Break in series (2012): Until the school year 2011/2012 data on primary education include ISCED levels 1 and 2. Data on secondary education refer to ISCED level 3. Since the school year 2012/2013 data for primary education include only ISCED level 1, and data on secondary education include ISCED levels 2 and 3. Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina Reference period (2011/2012 backwards): Data refers to the end of the school year. Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina Reference period (2012/2013 onward): Data on teachers in primary and secondary education refer to the beginning of the school year. Country: Canada Change in definition (1990 - onwards): Data for secondary level include primary level. Data for post secondary non-tertiary education (ISCED 4 level) may include tertiary education. Groupings refer to NOC-S 2001 classification. Country: Canada Reference period (1990 - 2012): Data are averages of monthly data over the period September to April. i.e. September 2008 to April 2009 for 2008/2009. Country: Croatia Teachers teaching in both primary and secondary art schools are double counted. Teachers teaching in several schools (grammar schools, technical and industrial schools) are counted more than once. 2000/2001: data are not available by sex. Country: Cyprus Data cover only government controlled area. Country: Finland 1995/1996: data for primary level include secondary level. Country: Georgia Territorial change (1990 onward): Data do not cover Abkhazia AR and Tskhinvali Region. Country: Germany Before 1990/1991: data refer to the former territory of the Federal Republic of Germany. From 1995/1996: data refer to the territory of Germany after reunification. Country: Hungary 1980/1981, 1990/1991, 1995/1996: data for primary level include levels 1 and 2; data for secondary level include level 3 of ISCED 1997 classification. Country: Iceland 1980/1981-2009/2010: data for primary level include secondary level. 1995/1996-2009-2010: data for secondary level includes only upper secondary level. Country: Italy Teachers, secondary education: teachers at ISCED level 2 and 3 are included. Data at ISCED level 4 are ''missing''.From 2004-2005 to 2011-2012 at ISCED levels 1, 2 and 3 only public schools are included.Data are classified according to ISCED-11 since 2012-2013.Teachers, tertiary education: teachers at ISCED-11 level 6, 7, and 8 are included. Data at ISCED-11 level 5 are ''not applicable''. Country: Montenegro Change in definition (2000 - 2012): Data for primary level include levels 1 and 2, data for secondary level include level 3 of ISCED 1997 classification. Country: Norway 2000/2001: data for secondary level include primary level. Country: Poland 1980/1981-1995/1996: data include full-time teachers. From 2000/2001: data include full-time equivalents. 2003/2004: data for levels 1-4 and 5B (practically oriented tertiary programmes) are not available. 2004/2005: data are incomplete. Country: Portugal Data from school year 2012-2013 onwards are compiled using ISCED-11. Considering the data aggregation proposed there is no break in series to consider. Data include only those with teaching responsabilities at school (excludes personnel with administrative/management/research functions only). Country: Russian Federation Break in methodlogy (2008): As of 2008/09 school year, the total number of teachers in secondary education include teachers of educational institutions in primary special education (ISCED 4) Country: Russian Federation Break in methodlogy (2009): From the 2009/10 academic year, the total number of teachers at primary and secondary education does not include officials at managerial positions. Country: Serbia Break in methodlogy (2007 - 2012): As of 2006/07 data for primary level does not include teachers in lower- secondary education Country: Serbia Change in definition (1980 - 1990): Data for primary level include levels 1 and 2, data for secondary level include level 3 of ISCED 1997 classification, level 4 do not exist 1980/1981, 1990/1991: data for secondary level include teachers of schools for special and adult education. 1980/81-2006/07:data for primary level include teachers in lower- secondary education Country: Serbia Change in definition (1995 - 2001): Data for primary level include levels 1 and 2, data for secondary level include level 3 of ISCED 1997 classification, level 4 do not exist 1995/1996 - 2000/2001: data for secondary level include teachers of schools for special education. 1980/81-2006/07:data for primary level include teachers in lower- secondary education Country: Serbia Change in definition (2002 - 2007): Data for primary level include levels 1 and 2, data for secondary level include level 3 of ISCED 1997 classification, level 4 do not exist 1980/81-2006/07:data for primary level include teachers in lower- secondary education Country: Serbia Change in definition (2008 - 2012): Data for primary level include levels 1 and 2, data for secondary level include level 3 of ISCED 1997 classification, level 4 do not exist Country: Serbia Territorial change (1995 - 2012): The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia has no available data on the AP Kosovo and Metohija. Country: Slovenia 1980/1981 - 1995/1996: data for primary level include levels 1 and 2; data for secondary level include levels 3 and 4 of ISCED 1997 classification. Country: Spain The category of ''level of education not stated'' includes the ISCED 0 teachers Country: Ukraine Data prior to 2012-2013 use ISCED 1997 classification.
    • novembro 2019
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 28 novembro, 2019
      Selecionar Conjunto de dados
      .. - data not available Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (Eurostat and UNESCO Institute for Statistics) official sources. Definition: Tertiary students are those enrolled in levels 5-8 of the ISCED 2011 (previously in levels 5A, 5B and 6 of the ISCED 1997) for the academic year concerned. Levels 5, 6, 7 in ISCED 2011 together correspond to level 5 in ISCED 1997. ISCED 2011 level 5, or short-cycle tertiary education, corresponds to ISCED 1997 level 5B and captures the lowest level of tertiary education. Programmes at this level are practically based, occupationally specific and are mainly designed for participants to acquire practical skills. Programmes at ISCED 2011 level 6, or Bachelor’s or equivalent, are often designed to provide participants with intermediate academic and/or professional knowledge, skills and competencies, leading to a first degree or equivalent qualification. Programmes at ISCED 2011 level 7, or Master’s or equivalent, are designed to provide participants with advanced academic and/or professional knowledge, skills and competencies, leading to a second degree or equivalent qualification. They may have a substantial research component but do not yet lead to the award of a doctoral qualification. Programmes at ISCED 1997 level 5A are largely theoretically based and intended to provide sufficient qualifications for gaining entry into advanced research programmes and professions with high skill requirements, but do not necessarily distinguish between a first and second university degree. ISCED2011 level 8, or doctoral or equivalent, is reserved for tertiary programmes leading to the award of an advanced research qualification and corresponds to ISCED 1997 level 6. Fields of study are given based on ISCED 1997. Measurement: Students , Country: Armenia Since the school year 2013-2014, the data have been compiled according ISCED 2011. Measurement: Percent of total for both sexes , Country: Armenia Since the school year 2013-2014, the data have been compiled according ISCED 2011. Measurement: Percent of total for all fields of study , Country: Armenia Since the school year 2013-2014, the data have been compiled according ISCED 2011. Country: Croatia 2000, 2001: data for level 6 of ISCED 1997 classification are not available. 2004: break in series; due to change of reference period from calendar year to academic year. i.e. 2004 data for ISCED 6 cover January 2004 to August 2005. Country: Cyprus Data cover only government controlled area. Country: Germany Data for level 6 of ISCED 1997 classification are not available. Country: Moldova, Republic of Change in definition (2000 - 2012): For level 5B data includes programs of secondary special education (colleges). Data exclude foreigners Country: Moldova, Republic of Reference period (2000 - 2012): For levels 5A and 5B - data refer to the beginning of the of the school year, and for level 6 - data refer to the calendar year. Country: Moldova, Republic of Territorial change (2000 onward): Data exclude the territory of the Transnistria and municipality of Bender Measurement: Students , Country: Ukraine From 2014 data cover the territories under the government control. Measurement: Percent of total for both sexes , Country: Ukraine From 2014 data cover the territories under the government control. Measurement: Percent of total for all fields of study , Country: Ukraine From 2014 data cover the territories under the government control. Country: Ukraine Data prior to 2012-2013 use ISCED 1997 classification. Country: Uzbekistan 2000-2005: data do not include doctoral degree candidates.
    • novembro 2019
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 28 novembro, 2019
      Selecionar Conjunto de dados
      .. - data not available Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (Eurostat and UNESCO Institute for Statistics) official sources. Definition: Tertiary students are those enrolled in levels 5-8 of the ISCED 2011. ISCED-F 2013 is a classification of fields of education and training which accompanies ISCED 2011.
  • U
    • outubro 2014
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 16 junho, 2016
      Selecionar Conjunto de dados
    • novembro 2019
      Fonte: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Carregamento por: Knoema
      Acesso em 28 novembro, 2019
      Selecionar Conjunto de dados
      .. - data not available Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (Eurostat and UNESCO Institute for Statistics) official sources. Definition: Upper and post- secondary levels correspond to levels 3 and 4 of ISCED 2011 classification (and mainly to levels 3 and 4 of ISCED 1997 used previously). Tertiary level is not included. Upper secondary education (level 3) typically begins at the end of full-time compulsory education for those countries that have a system of compulsory education. The entrance age to this level is typically between ages 14 and 16 years. Post secondary education (level 4) captures programmes that are typically designed to provide individuals who completed ISCED level 3 with non-tertiary qualifications required for progression to tertiary education or for employment when their ISCED level 3 qualification does not grant such access. Level 4 programmes can, considering their content, not be regarded as tertiary programmes. They are often not significantly more advanced than programmes at level 3 but they serve to broaden the knowledge of participants who have already completed a programme at level 3. Country: Albania Up to 2011-2012 data refer to ISCED level 3. Country: Armenia Data refer to ISCED level 3. From 1995 onwards the data include pupils in private schools. Since the school year 2013-2014 the data have been compiled according to ISCED-2011. Country: Austria Up to 1990-1991: data refer to ISCED 1976 classification. 1980-1981, 1990-1991 and 1995-1996: data refer to 1979-1980, 1989-1990 and 1994-1995. Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina Data refer to ISCED level 3 Country: Canada Data refer to ISCED level 3 Country: Croatia Data refer to ISCED level 3. Country: Cyprus Up to 2012-2013 data refer to ISCED level 3. Data cover only government controlled area. Country: Finland 1990-1991: data refer to ISCED 1976 classification. Country: Germany Up to 1995-1996: data refer to ISCED 1976 classification. Country: Hungary 2000: data refer to 1999-2000. Country: Iceland Up to 1995-1996: data refer to level 3 of ISCED 1976 classification. Country: Ireland Up to 1995-1996: data refer to level 3 of ISCED 1997 classification. Country: Israel 2000-2001: data exclude pupils in schools related to the Ministry of Religious Affairs. Country: Italy 1980-1981, 1990-1991 and 1995-1996: data refer to 1979-1980, 1989-1990 and 1994-1995. Country: Latvia Up to 1995-96: data refer to level 3 of ISCED 1976 classification. Country: Moldova, Republic of Territorial change (1995 - 2012): Data exclude the territory of the Transnistria and municipality of Bender Country: Montenegro Data refer to ISCED level 3. Country: Spain Data refer to ISCED level 3. 2000-2001: data refer to 1999-2000. Country: Sweden 1990-1991: data refer to level 3 of ISCED 1976 classification. Data include adults enrolled in upper and post secondary level classes. Country: Tajikistan Data refer to ISCED level 3 Country: Turkey Up to 1995-1996: data refer to ISCED 1976 classification. Country: Ukraine 2012-2013, 2013-2014: data refer to ISCED level 3 Country: United Kingdom 2006: Break in series; data include only students participating in courses equal to or longer than a semester. From 2010 onwards data refer to ISCED level 3. Country: Uzbekistan Data refer to ISCED level 3

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