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The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense..." NSF is vital because we support basic research and people to create knowledge that transforms the future.
1. RD & D stands for Research, Development and Demonstration 2. Clean energy and other non-fossil fuel technologies include renewable (solar, wind, bio fuels, ocean energy, and hydro power), nuclear, hydrogen and fuel cells, CO2 capture and storage, other power and storage, and energy efficiency
National Patterns of R&D Resources provides current data on the levels and key trends of the performance and funding of research and experimental development (R&D) in the United States. The statistical tables included in this Data Update supplement the recent InfoBrief (September 2016, available at https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2016/nsf16316) by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) that discusses the National Patterns findings for 2014–15. The National Patterns statistics draw primarily from NCSES's national surveys of the R&D expenditures and funding of the organizations that perform the bulk of U.S. R&D—including businesses, federal and nonfederal government, higher education, and other nonprofit organizations. Additional details on levels and trends are provided by type of R&D performed (i.e., basic research, applied research, and experimental development). The National Patterns data are reported in both current and inflation-adjusted dollars, with comparisons to the historical record for U.S. R&D (back to 1953) and to the corresponding pace of overall U.S. economic growth. The data for 2014 are previously unreported in this series. These numbers reflect new input from the sectoral R&D expenditure surveys, which are generally final but still include a few estimated components. As such, the 2014 data are marked "preliminary" and may later be revised when the complete set of final survey data becomes available. The data for 2015 are chiefly estimates based on early findings from the 2015 sectoral surveys and evident recent trends. The data for 2015 are likely to be revised by the next edition of this report. The numbers for 1953–2013 reflect survey data that have been finalized in previous report editions but may still include further small revisions and corrections. (Accordingly, for trend comparisons readers should use the latest report in this series, not data published in earlier editions.) The statistical tables are arranged to exhibit the U.S. R&D data from two differing perspectives. The first perspective (tables 2–5) is by type of R&D performer, with subsequent breakouts by the source of funds. The second perspective (tables 6–9) is by source of funds, with subsequent breakouts by type of performer. The data in both groups of tables sum to the same overall U.S. R&D performance totals. Table 1 provides data mainly on the U.S. R&D-to-gross domestic product (GDP) ratio and its components. Tables 10–12 present state-level breakdowns of the U.S. R&D totals, by performing sector and source of funds, for 2012–14.
Educational attainment in a science, engineering, or technology (SET) field gives people greater opportunities to work in higher-paying technical jobs than are generally available to those in other fields of study. Earning an associate's degree in an SET field also prepares an individual for more advanced technical education.
This indicator represents the extent to which a state provides associate's level training in SET fields, controlling for the size of its college-age population. The cohort 18–24 years old was chosen to approximate the age range of most students who are pursuing an associate's degree.
The National Center for Education Statistics counts the number of associate's degrees awarded in SET fields; these data include degrees in science and engineering technology fields that are not included with other similar indicators where only S&E fields are included. Associate's degrees are awarded at both 2-year and 4-year institutions in the United States, and there may be regional variations in the degree awards, based on the relationship of these institutions to each other in each state. Estimates of the population aged 18–24 years old are provided by the U.S. Census Bureau. Small differences in the indicator value between states or across time generally are not meaningful. Because students may move across state lines after receiving their associate's degrees, this indicator does not necessarily predict the qualifications of a state's future technical workforce.
The National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended, requires that the National Science Foundation initiate and maintain a program for the determination of the total amount of money for scientific and engineering research, including money allocated for the construction of the facilities wherein such research is conducted, received by each educational institution and appropriate nonprofit organization in the United States, by grant, contract, or other arrangement from agencies of the Federal Government, and to report annually thereon to the President and the Congress. To fulfill this requirement, NSF’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics has used the data collection system originally designed by the Committee on Academic Science and Engineering of the Federal Council for Science and Technology. Through its Survey of Federal Science and Engineering Support to Universities, Colleges, and Nonprofit Institutions, NCSES annually collects statistical data from the 19 federal agencies that account for virtually all support for science and engineering (S&E) research and development at educational institutions. Data are also collected on these agencies' obligations to nonprofit institutions. Since its inception, this survey system has been the sole source of data on federal funding to individual institutions for S&E activities and, therefore, attracts a wide audience. These data provide information that enables users to examine patterns of support for individual institutions over time and to compare such patterns with those of other institutions.
The Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) is an annual census conducted since 1957 of all individuals receiving a research doctorate from an accredited U.S. institution in a given academic year. The SED is sponsored by six federal agencies: the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Education, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Endowment for the Humanities, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The SED collects information on the doctoral recipient’s educational history, demographic characteristics, and postgraduation plans. Results are used to assess characteristics of the doctoral population and trends in doctoral education and degrees.
The Higher Education Research and Development Survey, successor to the Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges, is the primary source of information on R&D expenditures at U.S. colleges and universities. The survey collects information on R&D expenditures by field of research and source of funds and also gathers information on types of research and expenses and headcounts of R&D personnel. The survey is an annual census of institutions that expended at least $150,000 in separately budgeted R&D in the fiscal year.
The data in these tables are collected biennially through the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) congressional mandated Survey of Science and Engineering Research Facilities. The FY 2015 survey was sent to research-performing academic research institutions in the United States. For the purposes of this survey, research-performing academic institutions were defined as colleges and universities with $1 million or more in research and development expenditures as determined by the FY 2012 NSF Higher Education Research and Development Survey. Military institutions, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs institutions, and federally funded research and development centers were not included in the survey. Tables provide data on the amount of science and engineering research space at eligible U.S. colleges and universities. Additional data are provided on the condition of facilities; current, planned, and deferred repair and renovation; and current, planned, and deferred construction projects. Selected tables provide information reported by all institutions that participated in the survey. The FY 2011 data related to new construction and sources of funding for new construction shown in the FY 2015 tables have been revised to reflect updated information from the respondent institutions. See the Technical Notes for more information. The tables also provide data on the characteristics of networking and computing capacity. These data focus on high-performance bandwidth, high-performance computing, and data storage capabilities.
The Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering survey is an annual census of all U.S. academic institutions granting research-based master’s degrees or doctorates in science, engineering, and selected health fields as of fall of the survey year. The survey, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, collects the total number of graduate students, postdoctoral appointees, and doctorate-level nonfaculty researchers by demographic and other characteristic such as source of financial support. Results are used to assess shifts in graduate enrollment and postdoc appointments and trends in financial support.
1. USPTO:- U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2. IPC:- International Patent Classification 3. Patents are fractionally allocated among regions/countries/economies based on the proportion of residences of all named inventors 4. The EU includes 28 member countries and China includes Hong Kong. 5. Patents are classified under the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) classification of patents