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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that was initiated in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference and formally created in 1945 by 29 member countries. The IMF's stated goal was to assist in the reconstruction of the world's international payment system post–World War II. The IMF currently has a near-global membership of 188 countries. To become a member, a country must apply and then be accepted by a majority of the existing members. Upon joining, each member country of the IMF is assigned a quota, based broadly on its relative size in the world economy. The IMF provides policy advice and financing to members in economic difficulties and also works with developing nations to help them achieve macroeconomic stability and reduce poverty.
Consumer price indexes (CPIs) are index numbers that measure changes in the prices of goods and services purchased or otherwise acquired by households, which households use directly, or indirectly, to satisfy their own needs and wants. In practice, most CPIs are calculated as weighted averages of the percentage price changes for a speciﬁed set, or ‘‘basket’’, of consumer products, the weights reﬂecting their relative importance in household consumption in some period. CPIs are widely used to index pensions and social security benefits. CPIs are also used to index other payments, such as interest payments or rents, or the prices of bonds. CPIs are also commonly used as a proxy for the general rate of inﬂation, even though they measure only consumer inﬂation. They are used by some governments or central banks to set inﬂation targets for purposes of monetary policy. The price data collected for CPI purposes can also be used to compile other indices, such as the price indices used to deﬂate household consumption expenditures in national accounts, or the purchasing power parities used to compare real levels of consumption in different countries.
The CDIS database presents detailed data on "inward" direct investment positions (i.e., direct investment into the reporting economy) cross-classified by economy of immediate investor, and data on "outward" direct investment positions (i.e., direct investment abroad by the reporting economy) cross-classified by economy of immediate investment. The CDIS database contains breakdowns of direct investment position data, including, in most instances, separate data on net equity and net debt positions, as well as tables that present "mirror" data (i.e., tables in which data from the reporting economy are shown side-by-side with the data obtained from all other counterpart reporting economies).
Global growth is forecast at 3.5 percent in 2015 and 3.8 percent in 2016, with uneven prospects across the main countries and regions of the world. The distribution of risks to near-term global growth has become more balanced relative to the October World Economic Outlook but is still tilted to the downside. The decline in oil prices could boost activity more than expected. Geopolitical tensions continue to pose threats, and risks of disruptive shifts in asset prices remain relevant. In some advanced economies, protracted low inflation or deflation also pose risks to activity. The chapter takes a region-by-region look at the recent development in the world economy and the outlook for 2015, with particular attention to notable development in countries within each region.
COFR presents data on fiscal transparency. It provides an overview of fiscal reporting, including whether fiscal data are available for all of the general government, whether the government reports a balance sheet, and whether spending and revenue are reported on a cash or accrual basis. It also derives specific indices of the coverage of public institutions, fiscal flows, and fiscal stocks.
Recent exchange rate movements have been unusually large, triggering a debate regarding their likely effects on trade. Historical experience in advanced and emerging market and developing economies suggests that exchange rate movements typically have sizable effects on export and import volumes. A 10 percent real effective depreciation in an economy’s currency is associated with a rise in real net exports of, on average, 1.5 percent of GDP, with substantial cross-country variation around this average. Although these effects fully materialize over a number of years, much of the adjustment occurs in the first year. The boost to exports associated with currency depreciation is found to be largest in countries with initial economic slack and with domestic financial systems that are operating normally. Some evidence suggests that the rise of global value chains has weakened the relationship between exchange rates and trade in intermediate products used as inputs into other economies’ exports. However, the bulk of global trade still consists of conventional trade, and there is little evidence of a general trend toward disconnect between exchange rates and total exports and imports.
The Financial Soundness Indicators (FSIs) were developed by the IMF, together with the international community, with aim of supporting analysis and assessing strengths and vulnerabilities of financial systems. The Statistics Department of the IMF, disseminates data and metadata on selected FSIs provided by participating countries. For a description of the various FSIs, as well as the consolidation basis, consolidation adjustments, and accounting rules followed, please refer to the concepts and definitions document in the document tab. Reporting countries compile FSI data using different methodologies, which may also vary for different points in time for the same country. Users are advised to consult the accompanying metadata to conduct more meaning cross-country comparisons or to assess the evolution of a given FSI for any of the countries.
The Reporting entities dataset provides information on the structure, size, and coverage of the financial institutions that are used for compiling financial soundness indicators. It provides a better understanding of the structure of the reporting entities in terms of the type of institution, number of entities, size of assets, and type of control. Reporting entities are domestically incorporated entities but are divided into two: domestically controlled and foreign controlled. The concepts of residency criterion and control are determined based on FSI Guide methodology which is in line with international best practices such as Systems of National Accounts. Data on reporting entities cover the branches, subsidiaries and the value of asset for both domestically and foreign controlled entities resident in the reporting country together their resident and non-resident subsidiaries.
The energy subsidy estimates reported here are based on the broad notion of post-tax subsidies, which arise when consumer prices are below supply costs plus a tax to reflect environmental damage and an additional tax applied to all consumption goods to raise government revenues. Pre-tax subsidies, which arise when consumer prices are below supply costs, are also reported as a component of post-tax subsidies. These subsidies will not necessarily coincide with definitions used by governments or with their reported subsidy numbers.
The energy subsidy estimates are not available for the following countries in 2013: Bhutan, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Eritrea, Fiji, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kiribati, Kosovo, Lao P.D.R., Liberia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Micronesia, Niger, Palau, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Swaziland, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. In 2015, estimates are not available for two addtional countries: Burundi and Togo.
Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR) finds that six years after the start of the crisis, the global economic recovery continues to rely heavily on accommodative monetary policies in advanced economies. Monetary accommodation remains critical in supporting the economy by encouraging economic risk taking in the form of increased real spending by households and greater willingness to invest and hire by businesses. However, prolonged monetary ease may also encourage excessive financial risk taking.
This dataset provides an overview of government’s cash flows, as summarized in the Statement of Sources and Uses of Cash, for those countries compiling GFS on a noncash basis (for example, an accrual basis) and are also including a cash flow statement.
This dataset provides an overview of total financial assets and liabilities classified by the sector to which the counterparty claim belongs. The counterpart sectors include nonfinancial corporations, the central bank, deposit taking corporations, other financial corporation sectors, government sectors, international organizations, external financial corporations, external general government, and other external sectors.
This dataset provides a comprehensive view of the integrated balance sheet. In other words, changes between the opening and closing stock positions in assets and liabilities are explained through transactions, holding gains/losses, and other changes in the volume of assets and liabilities. Data on net investment in nonfinancial assets – a component of total expenditure – on its components and related stock positions are provided.
This dataset provides a comprehensive view of the functions, or socioeconomic objectives, that government aims to achieve through various kinds of expenditure, comprising detailed classifications of general public service, defense, public order and safety, economic affairs, environment protection, housing and community services, health, recreation, culture and religion, education, and social protection services.
This dataset provides a comprehensive view of government expense, including detailed classifications of compensation of employees, use of goods and services, consumption of fixed capital, interest payable, subsidies payable, grants payable, social benefits, and other expense.
This dataset provides an overview of government operations and stock positions, as well as several derived balances. The Statement of Government Operations shows revenue and expense, with their main components, the operating balance and net lending/net borrowing, as well as financing. The Balance sheet shows stock positions in assets and liabilities, with their main components, as well as net worth and net financial worth. In addition, data on gross debt and net debt are included.
The Historical Public Debt Database contains unbalanced panel data on Gross Domestic Product, Gross Government Debt, and Gross Government Debt-to-GDP Ratio for 187 countries. The series spans the years 1800 through 2015 although each country’s data depends on its date of independence and data availability. The database was constructed by bringing together a number of other datasets and information from original sources. For the most recent years, the data are linked to the IMF World Economic Outlook (WEO) database to facilitate regular updates.
Covering 187 countries including most low-income countries, the toolkit provides indicators on export product diversification and export product quality from 1962-2010. The measures in this toolkit are based on an updated version of the UN–NBER dataset, which harmonizes COMTRADE bilateral trade flow data at the 4-digit SITC (Rev. 1) level. The export diversification and quality database was developed by IMF staff under an IMF-DFID research collaboration.
The Export Diversification Database has three main indicators: the Export Diversification Index, the Extensive Margin, and the Intensive Margin. Higher values for the all three indices indicate lower diversification. The Export Quality Database contains export quality measures across different aggregation levels of export products. Higher values for the quality indices indicate higher quality levels.
The Fiscal Monitor surveys and analyzes the latest public finance developments, it updates fiscal implications of the crisis and medium-term fiscal projections, and assesses policies to put public finances on a sustainable footing. The global economy is undergoing major transformations,including a productivity slowdown, technological change, and global economic integration. This creates new demands for public policies to facilitate these transformations, while cushioning the effect on those negatively affected. Fiscal policy has a greater role to play in fostering sustainable and inclusive growth. At the same time, the high degree of uncertainty surrounding the outlook as well as stretched government balance sheets require a better understanding and management of risks. Fiscal policy therefore has the difficult task of achieving more and better in a more constrained environment.
BOPSY Global Tables aggregate country data by major balance of payments components and by international investment position (IIP) data for (i) Net IIP and (ii) Total Assets and Total Liabilities. Data for countries, country groups, and the world are provided. In addition to data reported by countries as shown in BOPSY, balance of payments data are provided for international organizations in BOPSY Global Tables. The BOPSY Global Tables include, in addition to reported data, data derived in a few instances indirectly from published sources. In addition to the 195 countries covered by the Balance of Payments Statistics (BOP), the BOP World and Regional Aggregates database contains data for 11 regions (country groups) including the world.
The FAS is the key source of global supply-side data on financial inclusion, encompassing data on access to and usage of financial services by firms and households that can be compared across countries and over time. Contains 180 time series and 65 indicators that are expressed as ratios to GDP, land area, or adult population to facilitate cross-economy comparisons. Provision of FAS data is voluntary.
Global growth is projected to reach 3.9 percent in 2018 and 2019, in line with the forecast of the April 2018 World Economic Outlook (WEO), but the expansion is becoming less even, and risks to the outlook are mounting. The rate of expansion appears to have peaked in some major economies and growth has become less synchronized. In the United States, near-term momentum is strengthening in line with the April WEO forecast, and the US dollar has appreciated by around 5 percent in recent weeks. Growth projections have been revised down for the euro area, Japan, and the United Kingdom, reflecting negative surprises to activity in early 2018. Among emerging market and developing economies, growth prospects are also becoming more uneven, amid rising oil prices, higher yields in the United States, escalating trade tensions, and market pressures on the currencies of some economies with weaker fundamentals. Growth projections have been revised down for Argentina, Brazil, and India, while the outlook for some oil exporters has strengthened. The balance of risks has shifted further to the downside, including in the short term. The recently announced and anticipated tariff increases by the United States and retaliatory measures by trading partners have increased the likelihood of escalating and sustained trade actions. These could derail the recovery and depress medium-term growth prospects, both through their direct impact on resource allocation and productivity and by raising uncertainty and taking a toll on investment. Financial market conditions remain accommodative for advanced economies—with compressed spreads, stretched valuations in some markets, and low volatility—but this could change rapidly. Possible triggers include rising trade tensions and conflicts, geopolitical concerns, and mounting political uncertainty. Higher inflation readings in the United States, where unemployment is below 4 percent but markets are pricing in a much shallower path of interest rate increases than the one in the projections of the Federal Open Market Committee, could also lead to a sudden reassessment of fundamentals and risks by investors. Tighter financial conditions could potentially cause disruptive portfolio adjustments, sharp exchange rate movements, and further reductions in capital inflows to emerging markets, particularly those with weaker fundamentals or higher political risks.
Avoiding protectionist measures and finding a cooperative solution that promotes continued growth in goods and services trade remain essential to preserve the global expansion. Policies and reforms should aim at sustaining activity, raising medium-term growth, and enhancing its inclusiveness. But with reduced slack and downside risks mounting, many countries need to rebuild fiscal buffers to create policy space for the next downturn and strengthen financial resilience to an environment of possibly higher market volatility.
The Principal Global Indicators (PGI) dataset provides internationally comparable data for the Group of 20 economies (G-20) and economies with systemically important financial sectors that are not members of the G-20. The PGI facilitates the monitoring of economic and financial developments for these jurisdictions. Launched in 2009, the PGI website is hosted by the IMF and is a joint undertaking of the Inter-Agency Group of Economic and Financial Statistics (IAG).
The World Economic Outlook (WEO) database contains selected macroeconomic data series from the statistical appendix of the World Economic Outlook report, which presents the IMF staff's analysis and projections of economic developments at the global level, in major country groups and in many individual countries. The WEO is released in April and September/October each year.
Use this database to find data on national accounts, inflation, unemployment rates, balance of payments, fiscal indicators, trade for countries and country groups (aggregates), and commodity prices whose data are reported by the IMF.
Data are available from 1980 to the present, and projections are given for the next two years. Additionally, medium-term projections are available for selected indicators. For some countries, data are incomplete or unavailable for certain years.
Changes to the April 2018 DatabaseIn the April 2018 WEO, there has been a similar exercise as of October 2017 to improve the net debt data to bring the data into better alignment with the definition of net debt in the IMF GFS Manual 2014 (GFSM 2014).
The Data Template on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity is an innovative single framework that integrates the concept of international reserves and foreign currency liquidity by covering data on on-balance-sheet and off-balance-sheet international financial activities of country authorities as well as supplementary information. It aims to provide a comprehensive account of official foreign currency assets and drains on such resources arising from various foreign/domestic currency liabilities and commitments of the authorities.
Commodity prices have declined sharply over the past three years, and output growth has slowed considerably among those emerging market and developing economies that are net exporters of commodities. A critical question for policymakers in these countries is whether commodity windfall gains and losses influence potential output or merely trigger transient fluctuations of actual output around an unchanged trend for potential output. The analysis in this chapter suggests that both actual and potential output move together with the commodity terms of trade but that actual output commoves twice as strongly as potential output. The weak commodity price outlook is estimated to subtract almost 1 percentage point annually from the average rate of economic growth in commodity exporters over 2015–17 as compared with 2012–14. In exporters of energy commodities, the drag is estimated to be larger: about 2¼ percentage points on average over the same period. The projected drag on the growth of potential output is about one-third of that for actual output.
Global growth declined in the first half of 2015, reflecting a further slowdown in emerging markets and a weaker recovery in advanced economies. It is now projected at 3.1 percent for 2015 as a whole, slightly lower than in 2014, and 0.2 percentage point below the forecasts in the July 2015 World Economic Outlook (WEO) Update. Prospects across the main countries and regions remain uneven. Relative to last year, growth in advanced economies is expected to pick up slightly, while it is projected to decline in emerging market and developing economies. With declining commodity prices, depreciating emerging market currencies, and increasing financial market volatility, downside risks to the outlook have risen, particularly for emerging market and developing economies. Global activity is projected to gather some pace in 2016. In advanced economies, the modest recovery that started in 2014 is projected to strengthen further. In emerging market and developing economies, the outlook is projected to improve: in particular, growth in countries in economic distress in 2015 (including Brazil, Russia, and some countries in Latin America and in the Middle East), while remaining weak or negative, is projected to be higher next year, more than offsetting the expected gradual slowdown in China.
This database covers the universe of systemic banking crises for the period 1970-2009, and also includes data on the resolution and fiscal and economic costs of banking crises. Note: Laeven, Luc and Fabian Valencia, 2010, Resolution of Banking Crises: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, IMF working paper 10/146.
The World Commodity Exporters Database is a collection of key macro-fiscal indicators covering 52 countries that are exporters of oil, gas, and metals (such as copper, gold, iron, and silver), where these commodities represent a large share of exports (20 percent or more of total exports) or fiscal revenues. The dataset was compiled from the following sources: International Financial Statistics (IFS), Balance of Payments Statistics, Direction of Trade Statistics, World Economic Outlook, and FAD’s fiscal rules. Data for all variables of interest are collected on an annual basis from 1970 to 2014, where available.
The IMF’s World Revenue Longitudinal Data set (WoRLD) is a compilation of government tax and non-tax revenues from the IMF’s Government Finance Statistics and World Economic Outlook, and drawing on the OECD Revenue Statistics and Revenue Statistics in Latin American and the Caribbean.