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Methodology: Efficiency score based on three weighted metrics: life expectancy (60%), relative and absolute health expenditure (30% and 10% respectively). Ranking included countries and regions with popullation of at leastfive million, GDP per capita of at least $5000 and life expectancy of at least 70 years of age. Total health expenditure generally includes preventive and curative health services, family plannig, nutrion activities and emergency aid. Relative cost is measured by total health expenditures as a percentage of GDP and absolute cost is the simple per capita dollar figure of total health expenditure.
Current rankong used data as most recently available: 2014 for all metrics except health care cost related data for Hong Kong and Taiwan for which data were as of 2013. For comparison, an inferred measure of 2009 was complied for the same countries and based on the same methodology.
Sources: World Bank, World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, Hong Kong Department of Health, Taiwan Ministry of Health and Welfare
The index shows how the net worth of each country's wealthiest person compares to the livelihood of his fellow countrymen by calculating the lump sum in dollars each person living in poverty would get if the assets of the richest citizen were liquidated and redistributed. The Bloomberg Billionaires Index and the CIA World Factbook were our reference points.
To identify the healthiest countries in the world, Bloomberg Rankings created health scores and health-risk scores for countries with populations of at least 1 million. The risk score was subtracted from the health score to determine the country''s rank. Five-year averages, when available, were used to mitigate some of the short-term year-over-year swings.
Bloomberg innovation index ranks countries and sovereigns based on their overall ability to innovate. It considers six equally weighted metrics, and their scores are combined to provide an overall score for each country from zero to 100.
1. Research & Development: Research and development expenditure as a percentage of GDP
2. Manufacturing: Manufacturing value-added per capita
3. Productivity: GDP and GNI per employed person age 15+
4. High-tech companies: Number of domestically domiciled high-tech public companies—such as aerospace and defense, biotechnology, hardware, software, semiconductors, Internet software and services, and renewable energy companies – as a share of world's total high-tech public companies
5. Tertiary efficiency: Total enrolment in tertiary education, regardless of age, as a percentage of postsecondary cohort; minimum share of labor force with at least tertiary degrees; annual new science and engineering graduates as a percentage of the labor force and as a percentage of total tertiary graduates
6. Researcher concentration: Professionals, including Ph.D. students, engaged in R&D per 1 million population
7. Patents: Resident utility patent filings per 1 million population and per $1 million of R&D spent; utility patents granted as a percentage of world total
Bloomberg innovation index evaluated more than 200 countries of which only 78 had data for at least six of the seven factors. Postsecondary education and patent activity consisted of multiple factors that were weighted equally. Weights were rescaled for countries with some but not all of the factors in those two metrics. The ranking shows only those countries included in the top 50.
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